Saturday, April 30, 2011

Tuesday April 30, 1861

Rained this morning, after which, I planted some flower seeds, thinking perhaps I might not be here to see them blossoming.  Mrs. Greenless called & talked of the war.

The First Regiment of Light Artillery-Third Brigade, Fourth Division of Ohio Volunteer Militia from Toledo & Cleveland, now stationed at Marietta in Camp Putnam is commanded by Colonel James Barnett, who is said to be a truly pious man.  One who heard him speaks of the excellence of his prayers on the parade ground with his regiment, of whom it is said no finer or better drilled corps of troops can be found in the state.  Major Genl. Hilderbrand of the Seventh Division has issued an order to organize 10,000 troops.  Washington Co. belongs to this Division.  Those in the River Counties are to remain at home & defend the border.  There are companies forming in most of the townships in this county.  They have already in Marietta those of the "Union Blues" who did not go to Columbus, who are filling up their ranks rapidly, the "Marietta Rifles" Capt. John C. Paxton -- "German Rifles" Capt. Jacob Konig -- "Irish Home Guard" Capt. H. Brenan  --"Silver Grays" Capt. C. W. Barker.  There is also a company of "light artillery" & a "Cavalry Company" in process of formation.  So we are getting ready for the fight.  Terrible as civil war is, we must do our duty.  God give us needed grace.  Certainly we have the right in this quarrel.  God grant it may be speedily and equitably settled.
Kate & the children came home with good likenesses of the latter.  William also returned from Chillicothe.

Friday, April 29, 2011

Monday April 29

William went again to Chillicothe.  The Business of the road is entirely destroyed.  Not a pound of freight is shipped to Baltimore.  This state of things is disastrous to the commercial interests of the country.  We may all expect to feel "hard times" as never before.
Kate took the children to town today to get their daguerreotypes.
Seventy-one thousand troops have been tendered to Governor Dennison during the two weeks which have elapsed since his proclamation calling for volunteers, and still they come.  Pennsylvania has 38,000 ready for the field.  New York is ready with her quota.  Massachusetts has sent hers to the Capitol.  Rhode Island hers -- & so of all the free states.  It is a glorious Spectacle of Spontaneous patriotism.  It is doubted if ever in the history of the world anything has been seen like the uprising of the people -- as the heart of one man, to sustain this government.  God grant it may not be in vain.  May He, in his providence so order affairs that "the right" may be established and treason & oppression brought low.  We do not want any compromise, no patched up peace, let this quarrel be settled now & forever, that peace, when it comes, may be permanent.  Today's Gazette says that gentlemen from Va. & Maryland waited on President Lincoln and proposed an armistice until the meeting of Congress  --  --  which the President promptly negatived.  They then said "Twenty-five thousand troops could be raised to dispute the passage of government troops across Maryland."  Lincoln replied, he presumed "that there was room in Maryland to bury twenty-five thousand men".  All accounts agree that the army of the Confederate States is moving South.  It will probably concentrate at Richmond, Va., --  Beauregard has 35,000 trained men & expects 10, or 15,000 Virginians to join the Rattlesnake Standard.  Cobb of Georgia, in a recent speech, to the southern people advises them to go on & plant as usual as they will not be disturbed.  Virginia & the banks of the Ohio being the proposed battle field.  It is supposed that Gen. Scott is apprised of the plans of the Confederates and will lay his plans accordingly. We may safely trust our cause in the hands of God and to those whom He has providently placed at the head of our government.  I called on Mrs. Burgess as I returned from the Post Office.

Editor's notes:

  • When Julia writes of "the road", she is referring to the railroad.
  • The reference to Kate and the children refer to Julia's niece, Kate Dawes, and the children are the two living children of William and Lizzie Cutler, Annie and Sarah Julia Cutler.

Sarah Julia and Annie Cutler

  • Mrs. Burgess is Lizzie's mother and lived nearby.

Thursday, April 28, 2011

Sabbath April 28

Mr. Andrews preached a sermon for the times from the text, "To every thing there is a season, and a time to every purpose under the heaven  --  A time of war", Eccl.3:1, and part of 8th verse -- a truly patriotic discourse.  S. S. Spencer of Virginia was over & heard it.  Western Virginia has been thought loyal to the government, but Wm. doubts whether they will stand firm.  He says the Union men are too few and will not fight.  The ordinance of secession is to be submitted to a vote of the people May 28th.  Our former minister Rev. W. A. Smith, who died at Walnut Hills on the 26th instant was buried in that place today.  He was a gentlemanly amiable, and good man, much beloved by his people where ever he labored.

Wednesday, April 27, 2011

Saturday, April 27

Lucy was down and spent the night.  Ephraim has been here most of the day.  The newspapers from Cincinnati seem to doubt whether Washington is in a position to meet the foe.  Many resignations of civil and military officers of Southern birth -- two hundred it is said, within a few days.  Great indignation is felt toward Baltimore.  Some urge that the city be bombarded at once.  I have felt greatly depressed today.  And have felt like calling upon God to save our country.  What are armed men, horses & chariots or munitions of war without his blessing?  And if He is for us, who can be against us!
William came home this evening. The Telegraph says, Jeff Davis proposes to Lincoln a cessation of hostilities until Congress meets, but it is idle to notice the various "canards" that pass over the wires.  A meeting at Tunnel Station for enlisting "Home Guards".  William made a speech.  William Scott attends all these meetings -- but his patriotism is not above suspicion.  It is painful to think that among us there are those who are traitors to their country.  One, Bill Sharp, a democrat, told F. D. Bailey he meant to fight for the South and could raise in this county five hundred men to do so. Old Mrs. William Skipton expresses the wish, "that the wife of every Republican in Warren might be a widow, and their children orphans".  It shows what the Democratic party is -- Though just now Douglas and other northern men, stand by the flag of the Union, their rank and file among the hills & valleys, have not yet taken their cue.

Editor's notes:
Warren was the township in which Julia lived.

Tuesday, April 26, 2011

Friday April 26, 1861

William goes this morning to Chillicothe --  The second morning train is discontinued.  Government has opened a communication with the Free States through Maryland by way of Annapolis  --  so that troops and supplies are rapidly thrown into the Federal city.  Davis is said to be concentrating his army in Virginia preparatory to an attack on Washington.  --  If the Lord is on our side, as I trust he is, we need not fear  --  May He give to our armed hosts courage and endurance unto the end.

Monday, April 25, 2011

Thursday, April 25

We were glad to have a call from T. W. Moore, he was in Baltimore the morning of the 19th, but left for Philadelphia before the attack upon the Massachusetts troops.  He was on the train with the next Massachusetts regiment, which was ordered back.  He said he never saw men so excited.  It was all their officers could do to restrain them.  They wanted to rush on and attack the mob that had slain their comrades, regardless though every man should fall.   Esq. Moore came home by the way of Pittsburgh, found the war excitement intense everywhere.  Mr. Wells of Chester, Mr. Bosworth of Pomeroy also called and talked over the war news.  Great apprehension has been felt for the safety of Washington city, but the brave old Lieutenant General Scott is there and it is believed to be safe.  Fourteen thousand volunteers are now in the city and ten thousand more on the march.  Any number can be obtained from the loyal states for its defence -- 4000 barrels of flour destined for Richmond, Va., have been seized and will aid in supplying the Capitol.  
Jeff. Davis, President of the Southern Confederacy is said to be now in Richmond with his General, Beauregard, preparing to lay siege to Washington.  Dispatches say he has one hundred thousand men under arms.  This is doubtless exageration.  [sic]  It is said he sent word to President Lincoln to remove the women & children before Saturday.  I hear but one feeling expressed, and that is, to have the whole matter brought to an issue and settled for good -- cost what it may.  We hope in God  --  who is able to give the victory.  It is thought that Maryland will be the first battle ground.
Kate went to Mr. Greenwood's, Mr. Deming's, and called on Mrs. Cooke.  This evening a meeting was held at our school -- J. J. Hollister made patriotic speeches.  There is a reign of terror in Baltimore, union men over-bourn and fleeing for their lives.  Many people would be willing to see the city punished for its treacherous rebellion.   --  In Memphis affairs are as bad --  2000 union men, mostly mechanics, have been driven out.  Paxton of Marietta has just come from New Orleans where he was surrounded by a press gang of the Confederate army and narrowly escaped.  Three of the McClure boys are now down South and their friends naturally feel great anxiety for them.

Sunday, April 24, 2011

Wednesday April 24

Andrews came to breakfast this morning.  He says six companies, or parts of companies, of flying artillery, with six fine brass field pieces from Toledo and Cleveland have arrived at Marietta designed for the defence of the frontier.  At present Western Virginia manifests a disposition to be loyal.  --The Wheeling papers propose a provisional government for the western counties subject to the United States.  At Parkersburg a union meeting is held today to be addressed by Gen. J. J. Jackson who was a member of the Convention which lately passed the act of secession.  He was opposed to that act and was therefore insulted, and maltreated, Gov. H. A. Wise wringing his nose & spitting in his face.  If Western Virginia is steadfast, Ohio & Pennsylvania will stand by her.

Presbytery before its close drew up a set of resolutions expressive of their views as to the duty of Christians in the present crisis.  Mssrs. Hart, Andrews & Marcus Boswoth made very stirring patriotic speeches.  Mr. Curtis was more conservative, and A. S. R [unreadable name scratched out] who chanced to be present, and was asked to give his views, made a compromise speech which did not meet with any favor.  Presbytery adjourned to meet in Sept. next to Tupper's Plains.  
Mr. Harold Wells of Chester took dinner with us, he is the elder from Chester church, and like everybody else, is wide awake on political subjects.  
Mr. Noble preached in the evening.  The burden of his remarks was the duty of recognizing the hand of God in passing events and by prayer & supplication committing our cause to Him, who is a very present help in time of trouble.  
William returned from Chillicothe where he has been to look after Rail-road matters.  Wilson has started to England to endeavor to raise funds to complete the road -- but the state of this country is such that there is little hope of much financial prosperity.  William is in charge of the road as Vice-President during Mr. Wilson's absence.  

Editor's notes:
There are occasional words or sentences of the original journal that have been crossed out, usually with a blue, waxy marker.  The journals were kept by two or three family members before being donated to the Special Collections Library at Marietta College.  There doesn't seem to be an obvious and consistent reason for the attempt to conceal small parts of the journal, although some of the "cross-outs" are the names of people Julia thought were "traitors".

Saturday, April 23, 2011

Tuesday April 23, '61

Kate came home on the early train.  She saw the departure of the "Union Blues" yesterday.  Every man, woman & child in town seemed assembled on the common in front of the Congregational Church to say good-bye which was done with tears and waving of handkerchiefs and many a fervent "God bless you."  
Mr. Hughs preached the opening sermon of Presbytery.  A small attendance.  Notice was given that on Thursday a meeting of the citizens of Warren would be held to make arrangements to organize a home guard to defend the frontier in case of any aggressive movements on the part of the South.

Editor's notes:
Kate is Kate Dawes, the daughter of Sarah and Henry Dawes and a niece of Julia Cutler.  Kate lived in the Old Stone House with the William Cutler family and Julia Cutler.
Marietta, Ohio bordered the state of Virginia (West Virginia had not yet become a separate state.)  People in Marietta were naturally concerned about being so close to the border of a Southern state.

Friday, April 22, 2011

Monday April 22, 1861

William and Kate went to town on early train.  --A great concourse of people in town to see the Union Blues off and to attend the meeting to consult about the public safety.  Mr. Hickes preached a farewell sermon to the Union Blues last night,  ----which was highly spoken of.  Two united with the church.  A testament was presented to each of the Company. 
At the public meeting today a "committee of safety" consisting of nine gentlemen, of whom William is one, was appointed.  Dispatches were received from Columbus saying that six  guns, powder & artillery-men, would be in Marietta tonight  ---Dispatches from the East give assurance that the city of Washington is prepared for defence if attacked by the Southern troops as threatened.  W. B. Astor of New York tenders the government a loan of ten millions of dollars and offers four millions as a gift, and the Albany banks add three & a half million more  ---  So the sinews of war will not be wanting.  
The state of things in Baltimore is horrible  -- the city in possession of the mob, streets barricaded, no Northern man safe in it.  They threaten an attack upon Fort McHenry which is at Baltimore and has been re-inforced and will be defended.  Esquire Moore went a few days ago to Baltimore & Philadelphia to purchase goods for the store of Moore & Cutler at Tunnel Station.  We feel anxious for his safety.
Nancy Carlin came back today to live with us this summer.  William went to Chillicothe by the night train.

Editor's notes:
Kate lived in the Old Stone House with the Cutler's.  She was the niece of William and Julia and close friends with William's wife, Lizzie.

Thursday, April 21, 2011

April 21, Sunday

Held meeting in the school house, the repairs in the church not being completed, Mr. Andrews gave notice that a meeting of the Country would be convened at Marietta tomorrow at ten o'clock to take into consideration the State of the County,  and to devise means of defence--    He also stated that a farewell discourse would be preached in the Congregational Church this evening to the "Union Blues" when some of their number would consecrate themselves to their God--and then to their country.

Wednesday, April 20, 2011

Saturday, April 20, 1861

William & Mrs. Dawes went on early train to Marietta.  Lucy on second train.  --Mr. and Mrs. Burgess & Maggie here to dinner.  Marion and Kate went up to assist in putting the meeting house in order for Presbytery, which meets here next Tuesday.  
On his return from Marietta William said he never saw anything like the excitement in town.  The Union Blues were on parade and more people in the streets than usually attend the County Fair.  --The Telegraph today confirms the fight at Baltimore, but a smaller number was killed.  The 6th Massachusetts regiment was assailed and three of their number killed, and several wounded.  The Gov. of Massachusetts has today telegraphed the Mayor of Baltimore to have the bodies of the slain preserved in ice and sent home.  We can imagine the effect upon our Yankee kinsman, when they look upon the first blood shed by traitorous hands.  In the place of each dead soldier ten thousand living ones will start forth.
Virginia has seceded.  This places us on the border & we must look the monster secession in the face.  It is said however that western Virginia is strongly Union in sentiment, and it is possible she may break away and form a new state adhering to the "stars & stripes".                 --Wheeling city is raising a Company for U. S. service.  Parkersburg held a large Union meeting yesterday.  They have taken possession of the cannon which Gov. Wise sent them during the John Brown excitement and have nominated Carlisle of Harrison County (anti-secession) for Congress.
--Today Williamsport ran up the Union Flag.  --Still all is uncertain we know not what a day may bring forth
--With regard to Harpers Ferry it appears that Virginia sent 2,500 men to seize the arsenal and arms there, but the Lieutenant Jones acting under orders from the War Department burned the arsenal and 15,000 stand of arms and then retreated through Maryland with his command of thirty men---So the Old Dominion failed of her expected plunder.  ---President Lincoln has issued a proclamation blockading the southern ports.  The North backs up the government with money & men.

Tuesday, April 19, 2011

April 19, 1861

Ephraim came on the early train bringing the coffin for dear little Jennie.  It is covered with black velvet and lined with white muslin, the dear babe looked sweet, her little hands clasping a cluster of blue forgetmenots--  Prof. Andrews, who came down with Sister Dawes on the second morning train to attend the funeral said he never saw a lovelier babe, every feature so perfect, and so much more expression than was usual in a face so young.  After the exercises at the house she was placed in the grave at the side of Ephie who died last August.

It is reported this morning that Virginia has seceded from the Union and that Harpers Ferry has been siezed.  John Minor Botts, hung, etc.  These telegrams may soon be contradicted.  Mr. Botts in a recent conversation with President Lincoln at Washington in reply to the query, What is to be done with traitors? is reported to have said, "Give hemp to the leaders and grape to their followers."  
At half after twelve William went on a freight train to Harmar & came down on the afternnon train with N. L. Wilson, Pres. of the M & C R.R. who is on his way to England and expects to sail on the Persia.  While we were at supper we heard an extra train up from Belpre whistling loudly & continuously as it neared our station.  This was a signal for William, who on going up, found that Wilson on reaching Belpre had received such disheartning [sic] dispatches, that he had turned back.  It was said that there was fighting at Baltimore, the mob opposing the passage of troops through that city on their way to Washington.  The report is that the troops were assailed with brick-bats & stones & that they fired on the rabble killing seventy of them--  William went up to Harmar with Wilson where he heard by telegraph that Government had removed the arms and burnt the arsenal at Harpers Ferry.

Monday, April 18, 2011

Thursday, April 18, 1861

Baby still living but breathing very short.  The Doctor came on early train, he thinks she will live through the day.  He will telegraph to William at Chillicothe that her symptoms are alarming. 
A little before ten o'clock A. M. she ceased breathing as she lay upon a pillow on Lucy's lap--   It is a very severe affliction to Lizzie to lose this lovely little babe so soon after burying Ephie.  She took the dear little one upon her own lap and with many tears washed and dressed her for the burial.  She was laid out in the crib & placed in the parlor the third of her children who have lain there.  She looked beautiful, her eyelids and lips a little parted as if she were just falling asleep,her little hand clasping the delicate forgetmenots--  We sent George to town to make arrangements for the funeral.  
Several friends came in during the day.  The funeral is appointed for tomorrow at ten o'colock.  --William came on the afternoon train--  Ephraim met him at Scott's Landing and told him that the baby was dead--  This is the third time he has come home to find the dead in his house.  When his first born, little Willie, died he was absent at Chillicothe and only got home to bury him; and when our dear father was taken, he was away East but got back to the funeral -- and now so with little Jennie.  --She was a sweet little child, well beloved of her parents, but while they grieve they know she is safe with the Saviour who blessed little children.  We do fade as a leaf, one after another of our family are laid in the grave and soon we shall all be there.  --"So teach us to number our days that we may apply our hears unto wisdom."
William said today that in view of the troubles impending in our own land, he thought the next generation would pass through such scenes as the world never saw.  Perhaps the dear little one now at rest was taken from trouble to come.  God has seen fit to take her, shall we doubt he does all things well?
"So fades the lovely blooming flower--
Frail smiling solace of an hour."

Sunday, April 17, 2011

Wednesday, April 17, 1861

I sat up last night with Kate to take care of the baby.  Lizzie is very much worn out with loss of rest and anxiety.  The baby's right foot burst open and blood came out--Her case has been a very severe one and has not yielded to medicine.  --This morning she seems better, and William, whose business calls him imperatively to Chillicothe started for that place this morning. He is assisting in preparing a statement of the affairs of the M & C RR which Mr. Wilson is to take to England.  It has been very hard for him to do it, amid all his solicitude about little Jennie.  Lucy came down today.  Mrs. Burgess has been here a great deal from Ironton, altho she has not been able to do anything having been sick during her absence.  This evening the babe is more feeble, we fear it will not live through tonight.

Editor's notes:
Lizzie is Lizzie Cutler, mother of the sick baby and wife of William Cutler.
Kate is Kate Dawes, a niece of William who lived with them.
Mrs. Burgess is Lizzie's mother, the baby's grandmother.
William was an officer on the board of the RailRoad.

The Old Stone House where the Cutler's lived

Lizzie Voris Cutler

William P. Cutler

Saturday, April 16, 2011

Tuesday, April 16, 1861

This morning the baby's symptoms were a little more favorable and Sarah went home.  It was very rainy and disagreeable weather all day.  We have had a great deal of rain and the Muskingum & Ohio are both high--over some of the bridges    --Ohio is to furnish 10 regiments for government service.

Friday, April 15, 2011

Monday, April 15, 1861

Train time has been changed & we have now two passenger trains in the morning each way, and one down in the afternoon which does not return until near midnight.  William went to Town.  A great deal of indignation is felt at the attack on Sumpter [sic], and the insult to the National Flag which was trailed in the dust at Charleston.  Gov. Dennison of this State has telegraphed to President Lincoln tendering 10,000 men.  Baby is still very dangerously sick.  The Dr. has been here twice a day for the last ten days, and is trying all he can to save her, but has little hope.  Ephraim came and staid all day & wrote for Wm.

Editor's Notes:
The trains, which Julia sometimes refers to as "the cars", ran between the town of Marietta, Ohio, and the Cutler home 6 miles away.

Wm. is William Cutler, the baby's father and Julia's brother.
Ephraim is Julia's nephew, Ephraim Cutler Dawes.

Thursday, April 14, 2011

Sunday, April 14, 1861

Dr. Hart brought us dispatches confirming the surrender of Fort Sumpter [sic] after a gallant defence by Major Anderson & his little band of seventy.  A storm kept the war vessels out of Charleston Harbor, so that they could not aid Anderson.  The President has issued his proclamation convening Congress July 4th, and declaring the South in a state of insurrection and calling for seventy-five thousand men.

Wednesday, April 13, 2011

Saturday, April 13, 1861

Lucy who has been here two or three days went home this morning.  Little Jennie is very sick with erysipelas, very little hope of her recovery.  Sister Sarah came this morning and will stay a few days.  It is reported that Fort Sumpter [sic] is taken by Confederate Forces.  We cannot believe it.

Editor's Notes:
Little Jennie was Julia Cutler's niece, the daughter of her brother William Cutler.
See the "People" tab at the top of the page for more information.

Tuesday, April 12, 2011

Preface to the Journal of Julia P. Cutler

On April 12, 1861, Julia P. Cutler was living in Constitution, Ohio, six miles below Marietta.  Julia, who never married, was 47 years old.  She was born and raised in the Old Stone House that now belonged to her older brother, William P. Cutler. 

An active and respected member of her extended family, Julia Cutler was the daughter of Ephraim Cutler and the granddaughter of Manasseh Cutler, men who were dedicated to public service.  A capable woman, Julia helped raise her nieces and nephews, and she also collected and edited her father's and grandfather's papers.  Moreover, Julia Cutler was an avid letter writer----and she kept journals. 

When news of the fall of Fort Sumter reached the Old Stone House in Ohio on April 13, 1861, Julia Cutler began a journal.  She wrote in it every day throughout the entire American Civil War.  Her entries record news about the politics and battles of the war as well as her own domestic concerns.

Julia was especially interested in news from the battle front.  Two of her nephews, Rufus R. Dawes and Ephraim Cutler Dawes, answered Abraham Lincoln's call for volunteers.  Rufus, who was working for his father in Wisconsin, helped organize the Lemonweir Minutemen, Company K, of the Sixth Wisconsin volunteers and served in the Army of the Potomac.  Ephraim helped rally volunteers for the 53rd Ohio and served in the Army of the Tennessee.   On the political side, Julia's  brother William P. Cutler served in the House of Representatives from Ohio March 1861-March 1863.  

Julia Cutler's journals were preserved by Mary Frances Dawes Beach, the daughter of Rufus R. Dawes.  Mary Frances typed the entries and those typescripts were passed down in the family.  The typescripts and the original journals are the basis for this blog.  

One hundred and fifty years ago, the American Civil War began.  Julia P. Cutler recorded her daily thoughts, concerns, and opinions.  Her journal begins April 13, 1861.