Friday, September 30, 2011

Monday Sept. 30

This morning Ephe and Lucy came down on the cars.  The back-water is over the bridge, in the turnpike.  We sent a horse over for Lucy.  Ephe crossed on the fence.  William rode out today twice and felt the better for it.  The river very low when it began to rain Thursday.  The elm stump and log near our landing were then out of water, high and dry.  Today the water was nearly up to the buggy bed on the turnpike bridge.  It has risen a few inches this afternoon but is probably at a stand tonight.  I never remember so high a river in September.  
Today's Gazette states that the rebels have evacuated Munson's Hill near Washington, a strategic position which commanded the encamp of 60,000 of our troops.  Do they despair of taking Washington or is it a ruse to deceive M'Clellan and draw him into another Bull Run trap?  May He have wisdom and courage to direct him aright.  Perhaps the rebels contemplate some new move against Rosecrans or toward Kentucky and Cincinnati.  Gen. Mitchell who is now in command of the Department of Ohio is throwing up intrenchments on the hills near Cincinnati and it is said that he is desirous to collect a large army at that point.  Some Ohio regiments among them the 14" (Col. Steadman's) have been sent to Kentucky, which having by the actions of her legislature, thrown off her neutrality is now ranged on the side of Government.  Federal troops have been sent there to protect Union men and to repel the rebel forces which are in possession of Bowling Green and other points.  There will be stirring times in Kentucky.  
Fremont is still denounced by many.  I think meanly and unjustly.  I hope he may have an opportunity to silence his enemies.  His position in Missouri is a difficult one.  Now he has taken the field.  May He who directs all things, and without whose blessing it is vain to fight, give him the victory.

Peggy's comments:
Ephraim Dawes, Julia's nephew, is preparing for service with the Union army.  With William at last recovering from typhoid, Ephraim is not so needed at home.

The Old Stone House in which Julia and brother William and his family lived is no longer standing so it is difficult to picture the particulars that Julia describes.  Here is a painting of the Old Stone House:
The Old Stone House, Constitution, Ohio

Here is a map of Munson's Hill and an illustration and description of Munson's Hill from Harper's Weekly.

Fremont was a Union general who had issued a proclamation freeing slaves in Missouri.  This caused political difficulties for Lincoln who believed that Fremont had not only overstepped his authority but that his proclamation might tip Missouri toward the Confederacy.  In addition, the various regiments under Fremont's command in Missouri were not communicating well and appeared quite disorganized.
John C. Fremont

Thursday, September 29, 2011

Sabbath Sept. 29

Last night was cold but foggy.  Today is fine.  The river rose a good deal last night and is rising rapidly today, a great deal of drift passing.  Mr. Scott, tutor at Marietta College, preached today. He may possibly supply the pulpit for a time.  Went to prayer meeting.

Peggy's comments:

The river Julia is referring to is the Ohio River which wound it's way past Constitution in Warren Township which is where Julia lived.

Wednesday, September 28, 2011

Saturday Sept. 28

Lucy and Marion went up to town on the cars this morning.  Three soldiers stopped at the well for water, and asked me for grapes.  I told them, "certainly" and they went out and helped themselves to Catawbas which are now ripe and good.  A few hours afterwards two other soldiers knocked and asked for grapes.  They said they looked so tempting and they did not now have a chance to have such things.  They belonged to the 36", Capt. Adney's company.  We asked them to come in and get some dinner, but they said, no, the grapes were sufficient.  On inquiry I found they went from Amesville.  One was a Wyatt.  He said their service in Virginia had comprised a good deal of hard marching.  Major Slemmer was severe but he had no doubt if called into battle he would put them through in good style.  
Still dull, cloudy weather.  Lizzie sent the soldiers a nice meat piece.

Catawba Grapes

Tuesday, September 27, 2011

Friday Sept. 27

A dreary rainy day; it has rained incessantly.  This week's Intelligence says the 36" regiment (Col. Crook) will soon be brought together at Somersville where they will be put under thorough drill.  Somersville contains 4 or 500 inhabitants and is in Nicholas Co. Va.

Peggy's comments:
I think Julia is referring to a newspaper, probably the Wheeling Intelligencer, which was published in Wheeling, Virginia (now West Virginia).

Monday, September 26, 2011

Thursday Sept. 26

This day has been set apart as a day of fasting, humiliation and prayer by the President that we may repent of our sins and seek God's blessing upon our distracted country.  At eleven o-clock those of us who could go went to the meeting house . . . .

Jesus "he knows our sins, our perplexities . . .  . . . . God help us, he is our only refuge.  Just as meeting closed it began to rain and rained all the afternoon.

Peggy's comments:
Julia Cutler was conscientious about writing daily.  I've been struck by how she seems to have been writing as if she expected others to read her journal.  And in fact, her journals were preserved by her niece (little Sarah Cutler, William and Lizzie's daughter), and later by Mary Frances Dawes Beach, Rufus Dawes' daughter.  What is interesting about today's entry is that someone (Julia?  Sarah?  Mary Frances?) did not want people to read all that was written.  Much of the entry has been crossed out and a piece of paper was glued over the top of the entry on the bottom of one page and the top of the next.  It is impossible to read!

Sunday, September 25, 2011

Wednesday, Sept. 25

Such repeated reverses are very depressing and I almost feel as if God had forsaken us.   If He indeed contends with us it is in vain to fight.  
Mr. Stephen Newton called to see William today, also Major Andrews who was taking Mrs. Andrews and Mrs. Clark to Parkersburg.
This evening Ephraim returned from Portsmouth.  Col. Appler promises him the adjutancy of the 53" regiment.  I hope it is for the best but I am sorry to have him placed in a situation of peril, yet God can keep him there.  We leave him and Rufus in His hands.
Mr. Haskins and Mr. Wm. Buell came here to get letters of recommendation for some appointment.  Ephe went back to town with them.
There are further details of the affair at Lexington, Mo.  A large sum of money fell into the hands of the rebels.  It is now said that those who should have reinforced the brave Mulligan are now beseiging Price at Lexington and Fremont is about to take the field.  May the blessing of God go with him and give victory to his arms.

Peggy's comments:
Like many people, Julia believed that the cause of the Union was just and that God could not possibly support the institution of slavery.  It is difficult for her to reconcile her belief in a just God with the recent Union losses.

She also worries about her nephews, Rufus and Ephraim Dawes, who were in harm's way.

And as to the affair at Lexington, Missouri:   money did fall into the hands of the rebels but in a few weeks, the money would be returned to the local bank.

Saturday, September 24, 2011

Tuesday, Sept. 24

We had our washing done today.
Col. Mills and Mr. Douglas Putnam were here today to see William & I think it did him good.  
A number of cars loaded with horses passed by today destined for the Rosecrans army.  Tonight's paper states that our forces at Lexington, Missouri, after defending their post for more than a week while surrounded by a greatly superior force (30,000) at last surrendered.  Mulligan fought with great bravery and for two days without water which the enemy cut off from the garrison.

Peggy's comments:
Missouri was a border state with some leanings toward the south.  Despite the Mulligan's surrender to the Confederate forces, Missouri remained part of the Union.  Today there is a State Park and Battlefield at Lexington, Missouri.

Friday, September 23, 2011

Monday, Sept. 23

Lucy and little Sarah went up to town with Sarah and Marion.  Lt. Col. Clark and Major Andrews were here to dinner.  Major Andrews has been to Cincinnati by order of Gen. Rosecrans to purchase supplies for the 36" regiment (or as it is sometimes called the Cutler regiment", blankets, tents, &c.  He is in good spirits and speaks of their late expedition as "a grand, good time".  They expect to leave Parkersburg, that is, the four companies still there, will leave the latter part of this week to join Gen, Rosecrans at Somersville.  Col. Clark says Gen. Rosecrans has at least 40,000 men.  Capt. Moore and Mr. Tuttle here this evening on business.  Capt. Moore has been sick and had hard times in the service, severe marching and short rations.  Does not much like Slemmer.

Peggy's comments:
The Cutler women moved easily from the Old Stone House where Julia lived to Marietta, Ohio which was six miles away.  They seemed to frequently visit with each other and took care of one another.  Sarah Cutler Dawes was Julia's older sister and had been separated from her husband, Henry Dawes, for many years.  Lucy was one of Sarah's daughters who ran a school in Marietta.  Little Sarah was the daughter of William and Lizzie Cutler and was 5 years old in 1861.

Major Andrews had formerly served as a minister of the church that Julia Cutler attended.

Adam J. Slemmer  was a West Point graduate and also taught at West Point during the 1850s.

Thursday, September 22, 2011

Sabbath Sept. 22

Sarah took care of William last night, I went to meeting to hear Mr. Deming read a sermon and to attend Sabbath School.  In the afternoon Major Andrews called on his way to Parkersburg.  Capt. Moore and Mr. Finch called.

Peggy's comments:
The women in the family are still sitting up with William.  Last night it was Sarah Cutler Dawes, William's sister from Marietta, who sat with him.  Sarah's son Rufus was fighting with the Sixth Wisconsin Volunteers.

Wednesday, September 21, 2011

Saturday Sept. 21

Sarah and Marion came down on the cars this morning.  We were very glad to see them.
The papers tonight speak of the critical state of Col. Mulligan at Lexington, Mo., who is surrounded by a large rebel force under M'Cullough and Price.  Reinforcements are on the way but may not reach him in time.  Two steamboats loaded with ammunition have fallen into the hands of the enemy.
Mr. Durand, Superintendent of the M & C R.R. spent an hour with William today.

Peggy's comments:

Sarah Cutler Dawes is Julia's sister who lived 6 miles away in Marietta.

The siege at Lexington, Mo, was not going well for Col. Mulligan of the Union.  His forces had holed up at a former college campus, but had not built their defenses to include adequate water.  They expected reinforcements, but none came.

William Cutler, six weeks into his illness from typhoid, may be on the mend at last since he was able to meet with Mr. Durand of the Marietta & Cincinnati Rail Road.

Tuesday, September 20, 2011

Friday Sept. 20

Lorin Andrews, President of Kenyon College and Colonel of the 4" Reg. O.V.M. died at his residence at Gambler, Wednesday the 18th of typhoid fever contracted in the camp.  He was brave, talented, generous and is very sincerely lamented.  
At a review of his troops lately McClellan made this laconic speech, "Soldiers, we have seen our last defeat.  You stand by me and I will stand by you, and henceforth victory will crown our efforts".  May the future verify the prophecy it contains.

Monday, September 19, 2011

Thursday Sept. 19

Gen. William Stark Rosecrans who has command of the army in western Virginia the majority of whom are Ohioans is himself a native of Delaware county, Ohio, and is now forty two years old. He is a graduate of West Point where he for a time was assistant Prof. of Engineering and Nat. Philosophy.  He has been employed by Government in various services, and has always exhibited untiring industry, energy and spotless integrity.

Peggy's Comments:

For more information about "Old Rosy", see the Smithsonian article, or this lively article by  e-history.

General William Starke Rosecrans

Sunday, September 18, 2011

Wednesday Sept. 18

President Lincoln has written a letter to Fremont qualifying or restricting the proclamation of the latter so far as it relates to freedom of slaves, making it conform to a late act of Congress.  This act of the President is much regretted by the friends of freedom.  May God overrule it all for the good of the country and his own glory.  Oh!  that He would give to our rulers wisdom and courage to do right.  
A distressing accident on the Ohio and Mississippi railroad is mentioned in today's paper.  Col. Turchin's 19" Illinois regiment on the way to Washington by the fall of a bridge over Beaver Creek, four cars were precipitated into the water, killing and wounding 100 persons -- 15 of them killed outright.

Peggy's Comments:
General Fremont, in command of the Western Department, had issued a proclamation to free the slaves of pro-secessionists.  Lincoln saw this as overstepping his authority and of as likely to disrupt the delicate balance which kept Missouri in the Union.  Here are two articles published in the NY Times.  Of interest to me is the statement that Lincoln ordered his letter to Fremont to be published in newspapers.

Sept 14, 1861  NY Times
Rumor That Gen. Fremont Is To Be Superseded.
We learn that a rumor was prevalent in Washington yesterday that Gen. FREMONT is to be superseded in his command and that Quartermaster-General MEIGS is to take his place. We have also what we deem good authority for saying that this rumor, unlike many others, is founded in fact; and that Mr. BLAIR, at whose earnest recommendation Gen. FREMONT was placed where he is, accompanied Gen. MEIGS, in order to explain to Gen. FREMONT the reasons and the necessity for the step. These reasons, we think it will be found, are that Gen. FREMONT exceeded his authority by the proclamations he issued -- that being the main reason -- and that he has in other respects acted in important matters not only without consulting the Government, but in contravention of its orders and practice. [Notwithstanding the apparent positiveness of this statement we are informed, by telegraph from Washington, that Mrs. FREMONT left there yesterday morning for St. Louis with assurances that the General should not be interfered with. -- ED. TIMES.]
Sept 15, 1861  NY Times
WASHINGTON, Saturday, Sept. 14. The following letter, from President LINCOLN to Major-Gen. FREMONT, was transmitted to the latter the 12th inst.: WASHINGTON, D.C., Sept. 11, 1861, Major-Gen. John C. Fremont: SIR: Yours of the 8th, in answer to mine of 2d inst., was just received. Assuming that you upon the ground could better judge of the necessities of your position, than I could at this distance, on seeing your proclamation of Aug. 30, I perceived no general objection to it; the particular objectionable clause, however, in relation to the confiscation of property, and the liberation of slaves, appeared to me to be objectionable in its non-conformity to the act of Congress, passed the 6th of last August upon the same subjects, and hence I wrote you expressing my wish that that clause should be modified accordingly. Your answer just received, expresses the preference on your part that I should make an open order for the modification, which I very cheerfully do. It is therefore ordered that the said clause of said proclamation be so modified, held and construed as to conform with and not to transcend the provisions on the same subject contained in the act of Congress, entitled "An act to confiscate property used for insurrectionary purposes, approved Aug. 6, 1861," and that said act be published at length with this order. Your obedient servant, (Signed) A. LINCOLN. WASHINGTON, Saturday, Sept. 14. 
The letter commanding Gen. FREMONT to modify his proclamation relating to the emancipation of Slaves, is published here to-day, by order of the President. It is rightly construed here to be an abandonment of the whole question. It may be right, but it would seem as if it was condemning the friends of the Union to fight against frightful odds; making them fight, too, for a shadow without substance.

Saturday, September 17, 2011

Tuesday Sept. 17

The bravery of our Ohio boys at Camifax Ferry is much praised.  Rosecrans combines prudence with bravery.  The Gazette says:  "We have a first class General and a brave army in western Virginia".  We have full details of the battle in today's paper.

Peggy's comments:
I cannot find the account in the Cincinnati Gazette, but here is an account from the NY Times, September 12, 1861

Stirring Intelligence.; Another Victory In Western Virginia. Total Rout Of The Thieving Floyd. Brilliant Success Of The Ohio Troops Under General Rosecrans. The Rebels Driven Out Of A Strongly Intrenched Position. Capture Of All Their Camp Equipage, Baggage, Wagons, Horses, Etc. Important From Missouri. The Rebel Forces Under Martin Green Scattered. Another Force Of Five Hundred Routed. Reported Capture Of Six Hundred More . Gen. Mcclellan's Report Of The Skirmish At Lewinsville. The Privateer Sumter Said To Be Wrecked. Great Victory In Western Virginia.
CLARKSBURGH, Va., Thursday, Sept. 12. A battle took place about 3 o'clock Tuesday afternoon, near Summerville. Gen. ROSECRANS after making a reconnoissance, found FLOYD's army, 5,000 strong, with 16 field pieces, intrenched in a powerful position, on the top of a mountain at Cannix Ferry, on the west side of Gauley River. The rear and extreme of both flanks were inaccessible. The front was masked with heavy forests and a close jungle. Col. LYTLE's Ohio Tenth Regiment, of Gen. BENHAM's Brigade, was in advance, and drove a strong detachment of the enemy out of camp this side of the position, the site of which was unknown. Shortly afterwards his scouts, consisting of four companies, suddenly discovered themselves in the face of a parapet battery, and a long line of palisades for riflemen, when the battle opened fiercely. The remainder of the Tenth, and the Thirteenth Ohio, were brought into action successively by Gen. BENHAM, and the Twelfth afterwards by Capt. HARTSUFF, whose object was an armed reconnoissance. The enemy played upon our forces terrifically, with musketry, rifles, canister and shell, causing some casualties. Col. LYTLE led several companies of Irish to charge the battery, when he was brought down by a shot in the leg. Col. SMITH's Thirteenth Ohio engaged the enemy on the left, and Col. LOWE's Twelfth Ohio directly in front. LOWE fell dead at the head of his regiment early in the hottest fire by a ball in the forehead. MCMULLEN's howitzer battery and SNYDER's two field pieces meantime were got into the best position possible under the circumstances, and soon silenced two of the rebel guns. The fire slackened at intervals, but grew more furious as night approached, when the German Brigade was led gallantly into the action by Col. MCCOOK, under the direction of Adj.-Gen. HARTBUFF, but after a furious fight of three hours ordered the recall of the troops, and the men laid on their arms within a short distance of the enemy, each ready to resume the contest the next morning. The thief, FLOYD, fled during the night, and sunk the boats in the river, and destroyed the temporary bridge which he made when he first occupied the position. The turbulence and depth of the river, and the exhaustion of the troops, made it impossible to follow him. He left his camp equipage, wagons, horses, large quantities of ammunition, and fifty head of tattle. Our loss is fifteen killed and about seventy wounded -- generally flesh wounds. The rebel loss is not ascertained. They carried their dead and wounded with them. Their loss was certainly serious. Capt. MCGROUTY, of Cincinnati; Capt. MCMULLEN and Lieut. SNYDER, of Ohio, are among the wounded, but not dangerously. Twenty-five of Col. TYLER's men, who were taken by FLOYD at Cross Lane, were recaptured, and FLOYD's personal baggage and that of his officers, was taken by Gen. BENHAM's Brigade, which suffered most. It was commanded by him in person, and Col. MCCOOK led his brigade. Gens. Rosecrans and Benham, Col. McCook, Col. Lytle, Col. Lowe, Capt. Hartsuff, Capt. Snyder, Capt. McCullen Burke of the Ohio Tenth, and the other officers, displayed conspicuous personal gallantry. The troops were exclusively from Ohio, and showed great bravery.

Friday, September 16, 2011

Monday Sept. 16

The Indiana seventh regiment went by today in the cars, three trains bound for Virginia, Gen. Rosecrans command.  They hurrahed as they went by and seemed in very good spirits.  This was Dumonts regiment.  He is now a General and they have a new Colonel.

Thursday, September 15, 2011

Sunday Sept. 15

Went to meeting.  Mr. Deming read a sermon on "Love to God".  No Sabbath School, superintendent absent.

Peggy's comments:
Julia never seems to enjoy Mr. Deming's sermons, but this week she refrained from criticism.

Wednesday, September 14, 2011

Saturday Sept. 14

Another letter from Rufus.  He is seeing active service now.  He says "Our regiment last Wednesday lay in Rifle Pits all day, the advance post of the Maryland side.  Since then we have been extended as pickets between Falling Water and Chain Bridge.  My company were deployed along some four miles including the only ford; the rebel pickets, cavalry and bivouacks in plain sight across the Potomac, here a little wider than the Ohio.  I enjoyed this week's work very much.  There is just enough danger in it to make it romantic.  Our camp or rather bivouac for we have not a tent with us, is within a few rods of Montgomery Hall; once Gen. Washington's headquarters.  Across the river on a high hill, now the site of a powerful battery of 30 guns, is the spot where Clay and Randolph fought their duel." 
I think that the Wisconsin sixth must be a very fine and well drilled regiment as I often see in the different newspapers very complimentary notices of it.  He says that they "are now uniformed in blue and armed with Belgian rifles - the best in the service, and have one of the best Colonels (Lysander Cutler) in the army".

Tuesday, September 13, 2011

Friday Sept. 13

A drove of mules went down, perhaps a hundred, designed for the army in western Virginia.  Several such droves have passed down lately.  A thousand mules have been in pasture for several weeks near Camp Putnam, which are forwarded to Camp Putnam as they are needed.
The privateer Sumter which has done so much mischief to our northern commerce went ashore lately, it is said on the Island of Trinidad and is a total wreck.  
Gen. Rosecrans has engaged Floyd's forces near Summerville at Cornfix Ferry.  Col. Lowe of the 12" Ohio was killed.  Col. Lytle & Capts. M'Mullen and M'Groartz wounded.  Total of our loss, 15 killed, 70 wounded.  The fight lasted five hours.  Union troops mostly Ohioans fought bravely.  Floyd's loss not known.  He fled during the night leaving his camp equipage, horses, wagons &c. and a large quantity of ammunition and fifty head of cattle.  Floyd is said to have been severely wounded in the arm.  At Elk River near Cheat Mountain Col. John A. Washington of the rebel army was, with another rebel officer, shot by our pickets while spying around our camp.

Peggy's Comments:
The Privateer Sumter apparently was not a total wreck in September as an article appeared in the NY Times in November of 1861 giving accounts of its actions, and reporting was that it had finally been captured.  If you want to read about this pirate ship, go here.

General Rosecrans was the Union general who was engaging Confederate General Floyd's troops in Virginia at Carnifex Ferry.  General Floyd, who had been Secretary of War under President Buchanan was never convicted of corruption, but more than once was associated with some less than honorable actions.   He suffered a wound to his arm at Carnifex Ferry as Julia recorded.  He continued to serve in the Confederate Army until he was relieved of command in 1862.  He died in 1863.

And General Fremont's wife, Jessie, was meeting with Abraham Lincoln to defend Fremont's proclamation to free slaves in Missouri.  An illuminating article appears in the NY Times blog, Disunion.

Monday, September 12, 2011

Thursday Sept. 12

I do not remember whether I have noticed in my journal the proclamation of Gen. Fremont in Missouri confiscating the property of rebels and declaring their slaves freemen.  It has made quite a sensation.  The opponents of slavery are much pleased with it as a movement in the right direction.  Some reports say that the government at Washington will sustain Fremont's action, others that they are displeased with it.  
Gen. M'Clellan's proclamation enforcing the observance of the holy Sabbath by the army under his command is hailed gladly by the Christian public as an omen for good, as it is a welcome relief to the soldiers from fatiguing labors.
The city of Philadelphia by its council has caused to be prepared an elegant sword ornamented with amethysts and diamonds to be presented to Gen. Robert Anderson with this inscription, "The City of Philadelphia to Robert Anderson U.S.A., May 22, 1861, A loyal city to a loyal soldier, the hero of Fort Sumpter".  The city council have also ordered for Gen. M'Clellan a strait sword set with diamonds and pearls, on the handle will be the figure of an American eagle attacking a serpent, the representation of secession.  The two swords will cost about $1100.
Ephe received today letters from Lt. Col. Fulton and Quarter Master J. Fulton of the 53'" regiment O.V.M. tendering their influence to appoint him Adjutant of that regiment and asking him to come at once to Portsmouth.  This he cannot do on account of William's dangerous illness.  It is a disappointment to Ephe but I hope all will end well.

Peggy's comments:

U. S. General Fremont found great disorder in Missouri.  On August 31, 1861, he declared martial law and also declared that the slaves of all secessionists were free men.  An article in the NY Times the next day hailed this proclamation as "the first great step. . .taken to show the world that we are in earnest in our attempts to crush the rebellion."

General McClellan's Proclamation was published in newspapers (see the following reference from Harper's Weekly, September 21, 1861):
The following order has been promulgated:
The Major-General Commanding desires and requests that in future there may be a more perfect respect for the Sabbath on the part of his command. We are fighting in a holy cause, and should endeavor to deserve the benign favor of the Creator. Unless in the case of an attack by the enemy, or some other extreme military necessity, it is commended to commanding officers that all work shall be suspended on the Sabbath; that no unnecessary movements shall be made on that day; that the men shall, as far as possible, be permitted to rest from their labors ; that they shall attend Divine service after the customary morning inspection, and that officers and men alike use their influence to insure the utmost decorum and quiet on that day. The General Commanding regards this as no idle form. One day's rest is necessary for man and animals. More than this, the observance of the holy day of the God of Mercy and of Battles is our sacred duty.
Geo. B. McCLELLAN, Major-General Commanding.
S. WILLIAMS, Assistant Adjutant-General

Many other cities and states gave gifts of appreciation to General Robert Anderson, the United States commander at Fort Sumter when it was attacked by southern forces.  Here is a picture of the sword that Julia describes from A Pictorial History of the Civil War in the United States by Benson J. Lossing.

Ephraim Dawes, William's nephew, was eager to be of greater use in service to his country but would not enlist until after William recovered from typhoid.

Sunday, September 11, 2011

Wednesday Sept. 11

William continues very sick.  He cannot lie down on account of a severe pain in his side and difficulty in breathing.
Today's Gazette contains Hon. David Todd's letter accepting the Union nomination for governor.  The southern papers are troubled about the loss of Hatteras Inlet.  The captured officers and soldiers, the powder lost, and the fact that the most important point on their coast for privateering purposes is now in possession of Government troops is calculated to vex them; but it is only a beginning.  They say it will take 30,000 men to retake that fort.

Peggy's comments:
William's relapse is troubling.

The Cincinnati Gazette, a pro-Union paper, refers to the nomination of David Tod by the newly formed Union party for the governorship of Ohio.  The Union party was a political party made up of pro-war Democrats and Republicans.

Julia refers to the loss of Hatteras Inlet in North Carolina.  It indeed was a major accomplishment for the Union forces.  It was the first victory after the disastrous Battle of Bull Run, it prevented Confederate interference with Union maritime commerce, and it gave Union forces an entry into North Carolina.

Fort Hatteras
Opening fire and troops landing in the surf
From the Library of Congress

Saturday, September 10, 2011

Tuesday Sept. 10

William was taken last night with a severe pain in his side and difficulty of breathing, could not lie down all night but, sat propped up with pillows in the rocking chair.  We sent for the doctor early this morning.

Peggy's comments:
Although the normal course of typhoid lasted four weeks, signs and symptoms could persist for an additional two weeks after the fever had subsided.  William is entering his fifth week.

Friday, September 9, 2011

Monday Sept. 9

William is so much better this morning that the doctor does not think it necessary to come regularly any longer.  We feel greatly encouraged.

Peggy's comments:
The normal course of typhoid fever was at least 4 weeks with the first and fourth week less dangerous than the second and third weeks.  William is in the fourth week and seems to be improving.  It must have been frustrating for him to be so ill for so many weeks as he had many obligations as a Congressman from Ohio, an officer of a railroad company, not to mention trying to run his farm.

Thursday, September 8, 2011

Sunday Sept. 8

Lucy and Kate went to meeting.  Bennet C. Bailey conducted services, an improvement over Mr. Deming.  William is comfortable today.

Peggy's comments:
Reading Julia's journal, I begin to see the pattern of her week.  Sundays generally were quite quiet with attendance at meeting and at Sabbath school.  Generally, she seemed to take great solace in these activities, although she had no patience for the sermons of Mr. Deming.

Wednesday, September 7, 2011

Saturday Sept. 7

William seems free from fever but is still weak.  The doctor says he will not come tomorrow but will be down again Monday.  I have not kept my journal very well.  Loss of sleep makes me stupid.  Lizzie, Lucy and I take turns watching with William, so we are up every third night.  Kate gets up at four or five o'clock to relieve the watcher.  Lucy went to town today.  She brought down a letter which Mr. Wickes has written to Mr. Shedd giving an account of the rebellion.

Peggy's comments:
The doctor, at least, begins to think that William is on the mend.  His wife (Lizzie), nieces (Lucy and Kate), and his sister Julia continue to tend at night--a routine that has been going on for a month.

Mr. Shedd is the missionary in Persia, husband of Jane Dawes Shedd.  They were eager for news from family and friends about the war, even though the "news" was badly out of date by the time they received it.

Tuesday, September 6, 2011

Friday, Sept. 6

The Grosebeck regiment, 39", Ohio Volunteers, has gone to Missouri.  Gen. Fremont's command.  Washington County has three companies in this regiment commanded by Captains Fell, King, and Rhoads.  
Lucy got a letter from Mary asking for her school--another cool proceeding.

Peggy's comments:
I can only wonder at the details of the "cool proceeding".  Lucy Dawes was Julia's niece and she ran a small school in Marietta.  I don't know who "Mary" is, but it was apparently quite bold of her to ask for Lucy's school.

Monday, September 5, 2011

Thursday, Sept. 5

I wrote to Jane today but having watched last night felt very stupid.

Peggy's comments:
Jane Dawes Shedd is Julia's niece who was doing missionary work in Persia along with her husband John Shedd.  Julia and other members of the family tried to keep Jane informed about the war news and in particular of the health and safety of her brother Rufus Dawes who was with the Sixth Wisconsin, currently camping near Washington, D.C.

Brother William was in his fourth week of typhoid fever but the women in the family were still sitting up with him each night.  If the patient survived, he usually began to improve in the fourth week.

Sunday, September 4, 2011

Wednesday Sept. 4

Peggy's comments:

This is the first day since the beginning of the Civil War that Julia did not write in her journal.  She only recorded the date.

Saturday, September 3, 2011

Tuesday Sept. 3

A naval force under Commodore Stringham and a detachment under Maj. Gen. Butler which sailed some days ago from Fortress Monroe, destination unknown, is now heard from in North Carolina where they have captured Fort Clark and Fort Hatteras, taking their arms and ammunition and about 700 of the enemy prisoners.  The point is an important one, and is to be held by the Federal troops.  The rebel prisoners were sent to New York. 
The newspapers intimate that Secretary Chase, having an eye to the future, is failing to afford Gen. Fremont the aid he needs.  Any man in these times who will work to advance his own personal interest to the detriment of his country deserves to be denounced.  Those who know think Chase equal to it.  Members of Congress are said to be jealous of prominent Generals and this is disgraceful.  Let every man do his duty or we shall have no country to fight for, no government offices to strive after.

Peggy's comments:
Here is Commodore Stringham's official report published in the NY Times on Sept. 2, 1861.

Influential Secretary of the Treasury, Salmon P. Chase, was a prominent Republican with an eye to further political power.   A former governor of Ohio, he had run for President in 1856.  Gen. Fremont was currently commanding the Union army, the western department with headquarters in St. Louis.  After the Battle at Wilson's Creek, Fremont declared martial law in Missouri as well as emancipation for the slaves of pro-secessionists in Missouri.

Friday, September 2, 2011

Monday, Sept. 2

We get little news from western Virginia.  Rumors contradictory.  It has been asserted that Tyler's command at Cross Lanes near Summerville has been defeated by Gen. Floyd, ex-secretary.  This again is positively denied.  Major Slemmer formerly of Fort Pickens has been detailed to command the 36th until a Colonel is appointed.  The boys consider this a great compliment.

Peggy's comments:
Confederate General John B. Floyd was a former governor of Virginia and also the former U. S. Secretary of War under President Buchanan (the President immediately preceding Lincoln).  It was rumored that during his time as Secretary of War, he diverted arms to government forts in the South which would then be easy for the southerners to seize.  This accusation was never confirmed.

Thursday, September 1, 2011

Sabbath Sept. 1

I went to meeting.  Elder Joel Deming read a sermon, his voice is low and weak, not well suited to public speaking or reading.  Mr. Andrews has taken up the sword being now Major of the 36th regiment.  I do not know what we are to do for a preacher.  This church is too poor to sustain a pastor as he should be supported.  I fear that the ways of Zion here will mourn unless the ordinances of the gospel are continued to us.  God pity this church and send us a good and spiritually minded minister that we may be built up in the faith and walk in the ways of the Lord blameless.

Peggy's comments:
Julia laments the loss of Mr. Andrews as a preacher and does not hold Joel Deming in high regard.  When her grandniece, Mary Frances Dawes Beach typed up Julia's journal, she did not change anything that Julia wrote, but occasionally she omitted a phrase or sentence.  The description of Joel Deming's weak voice was omitted in the typescript.  Mary Frances Dawes Beach was married to a minister--her descendants speculate that she did not want to include criticism of ministers!