Saturday, December 31, 2011

Tuesday Dec. 31

Kate and little Annie went to town to spend New Years.  Ephe came down on the evening train to tell us goodby.  He goes on Thursday back to camp, expects in a few days to be removed to Camp Dennison.  This ends the most eventful year, 1861.  God grant the succeeding year may have a more triumphant and happy close.

End of 1861.

Friday, December 30, 2011

Monday Dec. 30

William started to Chillicothe this morning.  Maggie here to dinner.  Papers give account of the capture of 15,000 rebels by Gen. Pope of Missouri, with 1000 stand of arms, &c.

Peggy's comments:
Here is a letter sent to Major General Halleck from General Pope on Dec. 20, and General Halleck's reply:

SEDALIA, MO., December 20, 1861.
Major-General HALLECK:
Just arrived here. Troops much embarrassed with nearly 2,000 prisoners and great quantity of captured property. Unless otherwise directed, to-day I will directed the troops to reoccupy their position at La Mine.
Brigadier-General, Commanding.

Saint Louis, Mo., December 20, 1861.
Brigadier General JOHN POPE, Sedalia, Mo.:
I congratulate you and your command on the brilliant success of your expedition. I hope it will prove the forerunner of still greater success.

ehistory at the Ohio State University, The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Vol. VIII, p. 452,, cited Dec. 29, 2011.

And this from the NY Times:

The Prisoners Taken By Gen. Pope.  
(NY Times, Dec. 24, 1861)

OTTERVILLE, Mo., Monday, Dec. 23. Part of the prisoners captured by Gen. Pope at Black Water last Thursday, passed down last night on a special train. Among those sent down are Col. MAGOFFIN, brother of Gov. MAGOFFIN, of Kentucky; Col. ROBINSON, who had command of the rebel force at Black Water, and who was in the battles of Dug Springs, Wilson's Creek, and Lexington; Col. ALEXANDER, who says he fought in all the battles; Lieut.Col. ROBINSON, Major HAINS, Dr. SMITH, one of the wealthiest men and largest slaveholders in Missouri, who has done everything in his power to give aid and comfort to the enemy; MCKEON, Sheriff of Benton County, who, it is said, by misrepresentation, gained admittance into one of our camps, made a diagram of it, and left that night -- (the rebels made an attack and killed sixteen or seventeen of our men;) Dr. MOORE, of Syracuse, is among the prisoners also, and many others who have gained notoriety by their zeal and labors in the secession army. Many of the prisoners wore a kind of uniform, and have served with Gen. PRICE for several months. They all say they have been well treated by the Nationals, and seem to think they will soon be released by Gen. PRICE. The wagons, horses and mules were turned over to the Quartermaster at Sedalia. The troops are again in position at Loraine. We were absent on this expedition just five days. In this time we marched about two days in a direct line from this place, and scoured the country through which we passed for a distance of forty or fifty miles on each side of the route, taking about 1,500 prisoners, 1,000 horses and mules, 1,000 stand of arms, 100 wagons, and a quantity of stores, supplies and clothing. Gen. POPE has received the following dispatch from Gen. HALLECK: HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE MISSOURI, Dec. 20, 1861. To Gen. John Pope: I congratulate your command on the brilliant success of your expedition. I hope it will be the fore runner of still greater successes. (Signed) H.W. HALLECK, Maj.-Gen. Com'g. This prompt appreciation of their labors and frank acknowledgment of their services, by Gen. HALLECK, has completed the happiness of the officers and men of this command, and they will move off with alacrity whenever they are ordered out on another expedition, and will do everything in their power to deserve the commendations of the General commanding.

Thursday, December 29, 2011

Sabbath Dec. 29

Mr. William Condit preached, full congregation.  Prof. E. P. Walker died at Athens yesterday.  He was a young man of fine talents, has been about a year professor in Marietta College.  He died of consumption.

Peggy's comments:
E. P. Walker was a young man who  had come from Ames township in Ohio.  He graduated from Marietta College in 1856 at the top of his class.  He impressed one of his teachers as a young man of "unusual self-reliance."

Wednesday, December 28, 2011

Saturday Dec. 28

Lucy, Ephe and William went to town this morning.  Miss Nye went yesterday.
Mason and Slidell have been given up to British protection.  In this our time of bitter trial when we are called to cope with one of the most gigantic rebellions and to settle the question about accursed slavery, haughty England, false to all her professions, sides with the south and seeks to humiliate and embarrass us.  I think we shall remember the insult.  England feels strong -- and insolent.  Her time of trouble may come.

Peggy's comments:
Julia never waivers in her absolute commitment and devotion to the Union, but I'm somewhat surprised by the bitterness in her comments about "haughty England'.

Tuesday, December 27, 2011

Friday Dec. 27

Lucy has painted a very pretty card rack.  William says there will be no war with England.  He hopes that Rufus may be at home on a furlough.  His Colonel has given him leave for fifteen days.  If consent of Headquarters can be obtained he will be at home in a day or two.  He told William that if a battle was expected soon he could not get a furlough nor did he wish to be absent in that case.  Ephe came on the evening train.  William sent him word to come.

Peggy's comments:
Family visits were definitely impacted by the Civil War.  Rufus and Ephraim Dawes, Julia's nephews, were serving in separate regiments.  Rufus was with the 6th Wisconsin which was part of the Army of the Potomac.  He had been camped for some months near Washington, DC, and was about to receive 10 days leave. Ephraim was with the 53rd Ohio and was with his unit in Ohio.

Julia's brother William Cutler was home from Washington, as Congress was in recess.

Monday, December 26, 2011

Thursday Dec. 26

Sarah and Marion went home this morning.  Miss Nye spends another day with us. This evening William came home from Washington.  There is a recess of two weeks in the House of Representatives.  He brought Lizzie and the children some very pretty specimens of the bead work of the Tuscarora Indians.

Sunday, December 25, 2011

Wednesday Dec. 25 Christmas Day 1861

Sarah and myself were invited to dine at W. D. Bailey's, where we met Mrs. Emerson and Miss Sarah Emerson.  Mr. and Mrs. R. D. Hollister, Mr. and Mrs. B. C. Bailey, Mrs. Maria B. Shipman and Miss Betsey Bailey,--a very fine dinner and a pleasant time.  In the evening at home we had a Christmas tree, the first I ever saw.  Lucy arranged the Christmas gifts upon a cedar tree firmly secured in a piece of plank and placed upon a table in the center of the parlor.  The plank was covered with green moss and the tree lighted with wax tapers.  Those presents which were too large for the branches were arranged under the tree on the table.
Maggie and Lizzie, Mrs. Emerson, Miss Emerson, Mrs. W. D. Bailey and the little Baileys were here.  When all was ready the door was opened and the surprise complete.  Our own children did not know till they saw what the evening's entertainment was to be, and were perfectly jubilant over it.  We had apples and popped corn and music and a merry Christmas.  All said it was the best they ever had, only "too short" the children affirmed.

Peggy's comments;
Julia describes the Christmas merriment so well!  And with such pleasure to write of their first Christmas tree.  Merry Christmas!

Saturday, December 24, 2011

Tuesday Dec. 24

The papers are full of the Mason and Slidell affair.  England is rampant; threatens to fight, says Mason and Slidell must be returned.  Many northern papers advocate fighting England sooner than surrender the traitors.  

Sister Sarah, Marion Robertson and Miss Mary C. Nye came on the evening train to spend Christmas with us.

Peggy's comments:
Mason and Slidell were Confederate envoys who had been captured aboard a British vessel.  The British were threatening war unless they were released.  Lincoln was endeavoring to find a solution to the problem which would not bring on war with Britain.  For more about the so-called Trent Affair (Trent was the name of the ship), read a description here.

Sarah Cutler Dawes was Julia's sister, Marion Robertson and Mary Nye were friends.

Friday, December 23, 2011

Monday Dec. 23, 1861

Cold and disagreeable.  Lucy has a very bad cold.  Busy painting card rack for Maggie.

Thursday, December 22, 2011

Sabbath Dec. 22

Cousin Temple came and preached for us today.  I was glad to have an opportunity to hear him.  His manner in the pulpit is dignified and impressive, his sermon excellent in tone and sentiment; his style good.  I think he will do good.  He is said to be very popular.  His letter from Major Emery notifying him of his appointment t the chaplaincy of the Maine 9" says his appointment was without a discenting voice.  His commission is from Israel Washburn Jr., Governor of Maine.  If his health is continued I have no doubt he will be useful and acceptable to his charge at Hilton Head.  He will also have an opportunity to improve in a knowledge of men and things.  George took him up this evening to town as he is expecting to leave early in the morning for New York, whence he will sail immediately for his post. 
It began raining this afternoon.  Our pleasant weather is over.

Peggy's comments:
Temple Cutler was Julia's cousin.

Wednesday, December 21, 2011

Saturday Dec. 21

The doctor here this morning.  He thinks Sarah will get well without his further attention.  I finished painting a letter pouch for Mrs. Bailey and Lucy made it up.  It is for a Christmas present and is pretty.

Tuesday, December 20, 2011

Friday Dec. 20

The doctor brushed out Sarah's throat.  It is still badly swollen; but we think it is better.  she begins to take interest in her plays again and has no fever; but her breathing last night was like the noise of a steam engine.

Monday, December 19, 2011

Thursday Dec. 19, 1861

Lizzie and Kate took care of Sarah last night.  The doctor was here again today.  Sarah seems a little better, she begins to articulate more distinctly.  Her throat was so badly swollen that she could swallow and speak only with difficulty.

The papers say that Charleston, S. C. has been in great part burned, it is supposed accidentally.  The loss is estimated at 5,000,000 of dollars.  A few weeks ago they discussed the question whether it were not better to burn their own city than to have it fall into the hands of government.  God has not given them the choice.  It looks like a special Providence and a severe rebuke.

Peggy's comments:
The fire at Charleston began in a factory and some thought it an accident  But because  many Southerners feared a slave insurrection, it was easy for rumors to begin that Negroes had started the fires.

As Julia writes, there had also been talk that the residents would prefer to burn their city rather than have it taken over by the US Federal government.

From the NY Times, December 18, 1861:
The City Of Charleston, S. C.; Map Showing The District Ravaged By The Great Conflagration. The Charleston Conflagration Full Particulars From The Charleston Papers Of Saturday. The Loss Estimated At Seven Millions. About Six Hundred Buildings Destroyed On The First Day. The Origin And Progress Of The Fire. Our Dispatches From Fort Monroe. Notes On Diagram Of Charleston. The Charleston Conflagration.
FORTRESS MONROE, Monday, Dec. 16, VIA BALTIMORE, Tuesday, Dec. 17. I have received a copy of to-day's Norfolk Day Book, by a flag of truce. It contains the follow-important intelligence: THE GREAT CONFLAGRATION. CHARLESTON, Saturday, Dec. 14, 1861. The Charleston Courier gives a list of between two and three hundred sufferers by the recent fire, and says the loss is estimated at $7,000,000. Mr. RUSSELL, in whose sash and blind factory the fire originated, says the cause was the negligence and treachery of negroes. The Mercury of the 14th gives a list of five hundred and seventy-six buildings which were totally destroy-by fire on Wednesday alone. One negro woman was burned to death. The Mills House was several times on fire, and considerably damaged. AUGUSTA, Friday, Dec. 13. The Charleston Mercury of this A.M. says that the fire destroyed five churches. The Cathedral, St. Peter's, (Episcopal,) the Cumberland-street, (Methodist,) and the Circular Church, also the Institute Hall, St. Andrew's Hall, Apprentices' Library Hall, the Southern Express office, the Palmetto Savings Institution, the Art Association Hall, the Cotton Press and CAMERON & Co.'s foundery are destroyed. RICHMOND, Saturday, Dec. 14. The largest sum reported subscribed in the Day Book for the Charleston sufferers is one hundred dollars. The Richmond Dispatch of the 14th contains a message of JEFFERSON DAVIS on the Charleston conflagration. He expresses great distress of mind, considerable pity, and proposes to pay a part of what Congress owes South Carolina, as a means of aiding the sufferers, but has no funds to give away. A kindly disposed rebel soldier is reported to have said that the fire in Charleston is well known to have resulted from the negroes setting fire to various buildings at the same time. RICHMOND, Sunday, Dec. 15. The Legislature has adopted measures to aid the Charleston sufferers. DISPATCH TO THE ASSOCIATES PRESS. FORTRESS MONROE, Monday, Dec. 16, Via BALTIMORE, Tuesday, Dec. 17. Capt. MILLWARD went to Craney Island to-day with a flag of truce, and was met by Lieut. SMITH off the island. No passengers came down from Norfolk. The Norfolk and Richmond papers give full particulars of the extensive conflagration in Charleston, S.C. The fire broke out at about 9 o'clock in the evening of the 11th inst., in RUSSELL & OLDS' sash and blind factory, at the foot of Hazel-street, extending to the machine shop of CAMERON & Co. Before midnight the fire had assumed an appalling magnitude, and Meeting-street, from Market to Queen, was one mass of flame. As tenement after tenement was enveloped in flames, the panic became awful, and thousands of families evacuated their houses and filled the streets. The buildings in the lower part of the city, where the fire broke out, were principally of wood, and extremely inflammable, which accounts for the remarkably rapid progress of the fire. At midnight the Circular Church and Institute Hall were burning, and the proximity of the flames to the Charleston Hotel and the Mills House, caused them to be evacuated by their inmates. At 1 o'clock the fire tended more southward, toward the corner of Archdale and Queen streets, to the rear of the Charleston Hotel and to the end of Hayne-street; crossing Market-street, the fire spread down East Bay to Cumberland street, and across to the Mills House, including in its destruction the Circular Church, Institute Hall and the Charleston Hotel. All the buildings on King-street, from Clifford nearly to Broad, were destroyed before 3 o'clock. Gen. RIPLEY, who superintended the movements of the troops who arrived on the scene at about this time ordered several buildings on the route of the conflagration to be blown up. After some delay the order was executed, but not before the theatre, Floyd's coach factory, opposite the Express office, the old Executive building, and all the houses from this point to Queen-street had caught fire, and were destroyed. At about 4 o'clock the wind changed the direction of the flames towards Broad-street. Soon after St. Andrew's Hall took fire, and subsequently the cathedral, the spire of which fell shortly after 5 o'clock. The fire made a clear sweep through the city, making its track from East Bay to King-street. The Charleston Courier of the 13th inst. gives a list of between 200 and 300 sufferers, and says that the loss is estimated at from five to seven millions of dollars. A resolution was unanimously adopted by the Confederate Congress, appropriating two hundred and fifty thousand dollars as an advance on account of the claims of South Carolina upon the Confederate States. We give herewith a diagram of that part of Charleston which has been ravaged by the great fire. All of that section of the city colored black has not been destroyed; but the whole region from Hazel to Broad-street, and from East Bay to the Catholic Cathedral, near Friend-street, seems to have been assaulted with more or less fury by the devouring element. The papers of the city give a list of 576 buildings which were burnt on Wednesday alone, and estimate the value of the property destroyed as high as seven millions of dollars. This estimate of value is undoubtedly in the usual Carolina style of exaggeration; and the 576 buildings must include a large proportion of ricketty old shells and negro shanties. Still, it is as evident now as it was from the first accounts, that the business and trading parts of the town, and a great part of its public edifices and churches, are in ashes. The number of the latter now given as being destroyed exceeds the number mentioned in the first reports; but not half the public buildings in the burnt district are enumerated in the dispatch. The list of two or three hundred sufferers alluded to by the telegraph must refer to the property owners alone; for there was a resident population of from seven to ten thousand whites, blacks and mongrels comprised within the burnt district. (In another dispatch, indeed, it is mentioned that thousands of families had evacuated their houses and filled the streets.) The telegrams we had on Saturday said that the fire had crossed Broad-street, and was sweeping southward; but our dispatches to-day make no mention of any ravages south of that street; so that it is likely that it was confined within the limits indicated in our diagram. Charleston is built on a piece of land very much resembling that part of Manhattan Island on which this City is situated. There is a river on either side, as with us, and the land there as here begins with a narrow point looking out on the bay, and widening as you go up town. Immediately on the Battery there (as used to be the case here) are the residences of the opulent. From these to Broad-street are the houses of middle-class people, many of them wooden -- with the sinks of iniquity and various trading, liquor and junketing shops on the east side, as with us -- only here these are a little higher up. Broad-street, as its name implies, is a wide avenue, occupied in considerable part by the better class of stores, and by various banks, public buildings and residences. Then comes the wholesale and retail part proper of the city, with public edifices, churches and shanties interspersed, and beyond that is the outskirts -- somewhat resembling the suburbs of Williamsburg. On the bay east of the burnt district, are the wharves and the offices of the cotton and rice factors, which the fire did not reach. From this brief description the reader will see exactly the nature and relative importance of the burnt part of the town. And by the aid of the diagram and the telegraphic dispatches we publish this morning, he can form some faint idea of the destruction that has overtaken the wretched Dity of Charleston. The leaders of the rebellion were themselves going to fire the town on the approach of the National forces; so the present destruction only forestalls their action.

Sunday, December 18, 2011

Wednesday Dec. 18

Little Sarah had a very sick night.  I never took off my dress during the night.  About four in the morning Lizzie called George and started him for doctor who came on the morning train, also Kate.  The doctor confirmed what we began to suspect that Sarah had diphtheria.  Mrs. Burgess and Maggie called down to see Sarah.  Lucy came on the evening train.

Peggy's comments:
Lizzie Cutler is Sarah's mother and Mrs. Burgess is Sarah's grandmother.  Lucy Dawes is her cousin.

Saturday, December 17, 2011

Tuesday Dec. 17

Getting ready for Christmas and painting in water colors.  About noon little Sarah who has been playing about like a kitten began to complain of  sore throat.  At bedtime she was sick with high fever.  We think perhaps she is taking the measles.

Peggy's comments:

Little Sarah is Sarah Julia Cutler, the 6 year old daughter of Julia's brother William.

Friday, December 16, 2011

Monday Dec. 16

Cousin Temple Cutler came on the morning train to see us.  He looks in fine health and is so except a bad cold.  It was very pleasant to meet him again.  He is as genial as ever.  He expects to leave soon for Hilton Head. The appointment of Chaplain was unsolicited and unexpected by him but not unwelcome.  He feels as if he wished to bear a part in this great struggle and as a minister a chaplaincy was the only place he felt at liberty to occupy.  He says he does not know whether he has courage but he does know he would rather be shot right down than be a coward. In the afternoon George took the buggy and conveyed Temple and Kate to town.

Peggy's comments:
Temple Cutler was Chaplain for the 9th Maine Infantry.

Thursday, December 15, 2011

Sabbath Dec. 15

Mr. Scott preached.  We had sabbath School and Bible Class before meeting.  Mr. Scott says that Cousin Temple and Rhoda are in Marietta.  He is on his way to Hilton Head, S. C.  He is coming down to see us Monday.

Peggy's comments:
Temple Cutler was the seventh child of Julia's uncle, also named Temple Cutler.  He graduated from Marietta College in 1857 and would have been known to Julia and her family.

Wednesday, December 14, 2011

Saturday Dec. 14

Kate went out to Moore and Cutler's store at the Tunnel Station to get coffee, tea &c. which will be sent in by train.  She went on horseback and got back before dinner. Lizzie Bailey here to tea.  Kate taught her how to crochet mittens.  
All the news papers and all the people are discussing the President's message, and the Secretary's reports.  The great question is what policy shall be adopted respecting slavery?  May God lead to a right decision.

Peggy's comments:
The Tunnel Station was a railroad station about three miles north of where Julia Cutler lived.

Secretary of War Cameron advocated the freeing and arming of slaves.  Lincoln took a more conservative approach in his speech to the nation on December 3, 1861.  This speech is fascinating in many ways, including the depth of detail.  In the speech, Lincoln refers to the Confiscation Act which stated that all slaves of the Confederate government who escaped to the United States would be employed by the United States.  The compensation was not clearly defined.  He also talks about a plan for  "colonization" advocated by many people as a solution to the slavery "problem".  The idea was to transport former slaves (and others of African descent) to a place where the climate was more suitable.  In most plans, an unspecified Caribbean Island was the proposed place.

Tuesday, December 13, 2011

Friday Dec. 13

Kate and Lizzie spent the day at A. S. Bailey's.  I have been painting in water colors, getting ready for Christmas.

Monday, December 12, 2011

Thursday Dec. 12

Lizzie and I took dinner at G. W. Baileys.  There were about a dozen there.  It was a surprize party got up by Mrs. Bailey to compliment her husband on his birthday.  A very good dinner and pleasant party.

Sunday, December 11, 2011

Wednesday Dec. 11

William started this morning to Washington to attend Congress.  We shall miss him very much this winter.  May the Lord watch over and keep him, preserve him from all evil and give him wisdom and make him useful to his country.
Kate, little Sarah and I went down and spent the afternoon at Mrs. M'Clure's.  They have just received letters from her sons in the 36" regiment now at Summersville.  She has heard from Andrew.  He was not in the battle of Belmont, has not been in service since the battle of Sringfield, in which he was engaged.  Theodore is in Paducah, Ky.  Has got well of typhoid fever and was lately engaged in a skirmish near that place.

Peggy's comments:
William Cutler served  in the 37th Congress, representing Washington and Muskingum Counties in Ohio.

Saturday, December 10, 2011

Tuesday, Dec. 10

Lizzie, William and I went to Mr. Burgess' to dinner, had a fine roast turkey.  Lucy came down on the evening train to spend the night.

Friday, December 9, 2011

Monday Dec. 9

Mr. Wakefield left this morning.  Kate went up to Mr. Burgess' and found Lizzie Poage sick with measles.

Peggy's comments:
Lizzie Poage was the young 13 year old granddaughter of Mrs. Burgess.  Lizzie's mother died shortly after Lizzie was born.

Thursday, December 8, 2011

Sabbath Dec. 8

Had Sabbath School at ten o'clock, Mr. Wakefield preached a very good sermon.  William says he is one of our very best preachers.

Wednesday, December 7, 2011

Saturday Dec. 7

Maggie expected a party from town to spend the day.  They disappointed her.  Kate and Lucy and little Annie there to dinner.  Mr. Wakefield came with William on the cars.  He will preach tomorrow.  Lucy and Maggie went up on the evening train.

Peggy's comments:
Maggie is Lizzie Cutler's sister who lived with their mother, Mrs. Burgess.  Maggie was 26 years old in 1861.

Tuesday, December 6, 2011

Friday Dec. 6

Another fine day.  Maggie and Mrs. Burgess called before breakfast.  William and Lizzie with the children have gone to take dinner with Mrs. Burgess.  Lucy came down on the evening train. Today's paper says Parson Brownlow with 3000 Union troops has gained a victory in east Tennessee.

Monday, December 5, 2011

Thursday Dec. 5

A pleasant day, finished the quilt.  Kate and Lizzie called on Mrs. Lyman Hart and Mrs. G. W. Bailey.  William returned from Chillicothe this evening.  Letters from Ephraim and Rufus.  Ephe is busy on his final report, which must be sent to Adjutant Gen. Buckingham on the 12" Dec.  Rufus is well and describes "Thanksgiving in Camp".

Sunday, December 4, 2011

Wednesday Dec. 4, 1861

We quilted busily all day.  Very cold.  Cousin Temple Cutler, who has been preaching the last two years at Skowhegan, Maine, has been elected chaplain of the ninth Maine regiment now at Hilton Head.  His church say that if he goes he will find a place there when he returns.  He will probably go.   Our great grandfather, the Rev. Thomas Balch, was appointed Chaplain by the "Committee of War" to the Expedition sent to Cape Breton in 1744, in which service he spent sixteen months.  Grandfather was also Chaplain to Col. Francis and also to Gen. Titcomb's regiments in the Revolution.

Saturday, December 3, 2011

Tuesday Dec. 3

Kate and Lizzie went to Marietta, a cold day.  They made purchase of materials for Christmas presents.  They saw Gen. Rosecrans who stopped a few hours in town.  He was on his way to Wheeling which place will be headquarters for the winter.  The battery at Fort Haskins fired a salute of eleven guns and Col. Craig had the men in Camps Putnam and Tupper turn out to escort him through town, 2000 or more in number.  The regimental band attended him to the boat, the "Prima Donna".

Friday, December 2, 2011

Monday Dec. 2

It is said that this is the anniversary of the day upon which John Brown of Harpers Ferry fame was hung.  Who can say how much that event had to do with the present state of our country.  Mr. Hollister here again working on the foundation of father's monument.  William went to Chillicothe this morning.  Kate put a quilt on the frames.

Thursday, December 1, 2011

Sabbath Dec. 1, 1861

This has been a rainy unpleasant day.  We were ready to go to meeting but were prevented by the storm.  It was proposed to have the Sabbath School at ten o'clock today and hereafter, instead of after service as formerly, and to have in connection with it a Bible class which Mr. Scott is to teach.

Wednesday, November 30, 2011

Saturday Nov. 30

Finished a letter I have been writing to Jane.  Snow on the ground and the trees look beautiful in their feather robes.  William went to Marietta and got us a variety of "little notions", conveniences for the winter.  He got lamps and coal oil which we are going to burn this winter by way of experiment.  Lucy came home with him.

Peggy's comments:
Jane Dawes Shedd was Julia's niece (and the sister of Kate, Lucy, Rufus and Ephraim Dawes).  She married in 1859 and immediately left for Persia with her missionary husband.  They would spend most of the next 31 years there.

Coal oil (kerosene) was distilled in large quantities in 1856 and tin lamps were introduced.  Because of widespread railroads, lamps and coal oil could be shipped efficiently.  I'm not positive that the lamp in this ad is exactly like the one William brought home for experimentation.  I found several old ads through a Google search that advertised their lamps as being non-exploding.  Wow!

Tuesday, November 29, 2011

Friday Nov. 29

Raining this morning.  Sarah and Ephe returned home.  The house has been filled nearly all day with people from Hocking and others doing business with William.  It is a hard day for him.  Annie has gone to spend the night with her Grandmother.

Peggy's comments:
Hocking, Ohio was about 75 miles west of where the Cutler's lived in Constitution, Warren Township.  I can't confirm this, but my guess is that the people from Hocking were visiting William on RailRoad business.

Annie Cutler, William and Lizzie's daughter, was probably staying with Mrs. Burgess, Lizzie's mother.

Monday, November 28, 2011

Thursday Nov. 28

This is Thanksgiving day.  I awoke early and thought over the past year with its trials and its mercies.  Tried to thank God and take courage.  God has kept us thus far.

"The past with gratitude we own,
The future, all to us unknown,
We to Thy guardian care commit,
And Peaceful leave before Thy feet."

Sarah came down to spend the day with us.  Lucy staid at home with Ephraim.  Rev. Mr. Scott preached a very good discourse.  We had sister Sarah, Mr. & Mrs. Burgess, Maggie and Lizzie, Mrs. M'Clure and Emeline here to dine.  Very fine turkey and good dinner.  Ephraim came down on the evening train and spent the night with us.  Kate has got her pit finished at last and put her flowers in.

Peggy's comments:
Around the Cutler's Thanksgiving table were:

  • William and Lizzie Cutler and their two daughters, Annie and Sarah
  • Julia Cutler
  • Sarah Cutler (sister to William and Julia and the mother to Kate, Lucy, Rufus & Ephraim Dawes)
  • Kate Dawes
  • Rev. Dyer Burgess and Mrs. Burgess (Lizzie's mother)
  • Maggie Voris, Lizzie's 26 year old sister
  • Mrs. M'Clure and Emeline, neighbors
  • Ephraim Dawes joined them later in the evening.

In trying to take courage and thank God,  Julia quotes from a popular hymn:

                  "Great God, We Sing That Mighty Hand"
                      by Philip Doddridge, 1702-1751
                               Text From:
           (St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1942) p.95

        1. Great God, we sing that mighty hand
        By which supported still we stand.
        The opening year Thy mercy shows;
        Let mercy crown it till it close.

        2. By day, by night, at home, abroad,
        Still we are guarded by our God,
        By His incessant bounty fed,
        By His unerring counsel led.

        3. With grateful hearts the past we own;
        The future, all to us unknown,
        We to Thy guardian care commit
        And, peaceful, leave before Thy feet.

        4. In scenes exalted or depressed
        Be Thou our Joy and Thou our Rest.
        Thy goodness all our hopes shall raise,
        Adored through all our changing days.

        5. When death shall interrupt our songs,
        And seal in silence mortal tongues,
        Our Helper, God, in whom we trust,
        In better worlds our soul shall boast.

Sunday, November 27, 2011

Wednesday Nov. 27

Lizzie has been getting ready for Thanksgiving tomorrow.  I read Gazette.  It is apprehended that the rebels in western Virginia are organizing for guerrilla warfare.  William came home from Chillicothe.  He met on the cars Capt. Parril of the 53" regiment  He spoke of Ephe as a first rate officer and said he was beloved not only by the officers but by every man in the regiment and that he is very correct and efficient.  None of the officers of that regiment are drinking men.  Ephe came home sick with cold.

Peggy's comments:
I wonder if by reading the Cincinnati Gazette Julia was staying out of Lizzie's way as she was preparing for Thanksgiving!
Ephraim Dawes, Julia's nephew, seems to be frequently on leave from service with the 53rd Ohio.  This was somewhat typical in the early days of the Civil War.
Marietta's proximity to western Virginia--it was just across the Ohio River--caused anxiety for the Cutlers, even though the western Virginia was in the process of forming a new state, separate from Virginia.

Saturday, November 26, 2011

Tuesday Nov. 26

Disagreeable weather.  Read the Gazette aloud, also about forty pages in Macauley.

Peggy's comments:
Julia is referring to the Cincinnati Gazette and Macauley's History of England.  

Friday, November 25, 2011

Monday Nov. 25

Still snowing.  William started again to Chillicothe.  I wrote to Clara enclosing twenty dollars.  Began to read aloud Macauley's History of England.

Peggy's comments:
Thomas Macaulay wrote a four-volume History of England, the first two volumes were published in 1949.  It has long been thought to be powerfully and beautifully written.

Thursday, November 24, 2011

Sunday Nov. 24

The ground is white this morning with our first snow.  Continues snowing but does not accumulate as the ground is warm.  Mr. Scott preached.  Small congregation, only twenty-two -- inclement weather.

Wednesday, November 23, 2011

Saturday Nov. 23

Sister Sarah and William went to town and he returned about noon on an extra train.  Gave Mr. Wilson one of the train men a large basket of russet apples.
An Irish woman from the tunnel came to complain of the Boss - Grattan - whom she called a "hungry hound".  She had quarreled with him and with her husband who gave her, she said, "an awful bating" for abusing the Boss--  She cried and talked loud, and from the strong smell of whiskey it was evident that she had been drinking.  Kate came home this evening.

Tuesday, November 22, 2011

Friday Nov. 22

Mrs. Terril here coloring black--
Floyd has again retreated before Rosecrans army.  The 36" is still at Summersville.  Owing to the wretched state of the roads they are kept on rather short allowance.  W D. McClure who is the train master wrote home that it took four days for the train to go a distance of 37 miles.  William got home this evening.  

Monday, November 21, 2011

Thursday Nov. 21

Kate and Lizzie went to town visited Mrs. Dr. Tenney.  Mary Slocomb was married this morning by gas-light to Dr. D. B. Cotton.  Sister Sarah came down with Lizzie this evening.

Sunday, November 20, 2011

Wednesday Nov. 20

Mr. George Davenport, an elderly gentleman of the old school who wishes a place under government dined with us today.

Peggy's comments:
William Cutler frequently had patronage requests made of him, as was the custom for Congressmen.

Saturday, November 19, 2011

Tuesday Nov. 19

Nancy washed.  Mrs. Terril cleaned the dining room and Lizzie's room.  Kate and Lizzie made cloth cloak for the latter.
The Confederate commissioners, Mason of Virginia and Slidell of Louisisana, have been captured by Com. Wilkes of the War Steamer San Jacinta.  They were taken from the British mail steamer Trent in the Bahama Channel while on the way to Europe and brought to Fortress Monroe. 
William went to Chillicothe.

Peggy's comments:
Nancy Carlin was an employee of the Cutler household and Mrs. Terril came occasionally to help with the cleaning.  Kate Dawes and Lizzie Cutler were close in age and had grown up near to each other.
The Confederate commissioners, James M. Mason and John Slidell, had been sent to Europe by Jefferson Davis not in an official capacity but as gentlemen,  to discuss establishing ties with France and England.  It was believed that European countries would be willing to do so because of the need for cotton.   Mason and Slidell were captured by Commander Wilkes from a British ship, Trent.  Wilkes was applauded in the United States as a hero.  The capture, however, caused diplomatic difficulties for the United States.  The British complained that the seizure aboard one of their vessels had violated their neutral rights.  For details, see the Wikipedia article or infoplease.

Friday, November 18, 2011

Monday Nov. 18

Another hard frost.  Ephe came on the morning train on his way to Camp Diamond.  We gave him a barrel of apples.  
The papers for several days have been filled with the details of the taking of Forts Walker and Beauregard at Port Royal, Nov. 7".  The attack was begun by the rebels.  Sixteen armed vessels under Commandore Dupont were engaged in the fight which continued five hours when the rebels fled and our forces took possession.  It was on the part of the Federals strictly a naval fight.  The military taking no part.

Peggy's comments:
The success of the navy at Port Royal had a variety of consequences.  For more details, read this article which appeared in the magazine America's Civil War.

Thursday, November 17, 2011

Sabbath Nov. 17

We had our first severe white frost this morning.  Roses, chrysanthemums, verbenas, mignonette, pansies &c. have continued to bloom in the open air until now, but the leaves had fallen from most of the trees before.  Pretty full congregation.

Wednesday, November 16, 2011

Saturday Nov. 16

Lucy came down on the cars and sister Sarah returned this morning to Marietta.  Lucy has been painting in water colors -- rosebuds.  Ephe came on the evening train and Lucy went to town with him.  He had heard of the alarm at Marietta and came home to see after his friends.  Col. Craig has been appointed Military Commandant at Marietta.  He has two companies entrenching themselves in the narrows below the mouth of the Muskingum where they have two cannon mounted.  The Adjutant Gen. Buckingham ordered another cannon in from Chillicothe, and Col. Pond with six hundred men came down fro Zanesville.  A lady, Mrs. Lovell, just from Charleston who is well acquainted with Jenkins and his secession friends says he has vowed to burn Gallipolis at all hazards and Marietta if he can.  Forewarned it is best to be forearmed.  This Jenkins is an ex-member of Congress.  He owns a valuable estate on the banks of the Ohio, raising on it some years 100,000 bushels of corn.  He is now at the head of a troop of cavalry 800 strong with whom he has been waging a guerrilla warfare upon his union neighbors in western Virginia and now threatens southern Ohio.  God has mercifully kept the war from us higherto.  We can but trust Him for the future.  Mr. Scott, our preacher, came on the cars and spends the night with us.  W. W. Peabody sent William a box with a dozen quails.

Peggy's comments:
A rambling post from Julia today, recording the comings and goings of her sister, niece and nephew.

Albert Jenkins is the ex-member of Congress to whom she refers.  He was a Democrat from Virginia who resigned his seat in Congress when Virginia seceded.  Read more about him here. 

Albert Jenkins

Tuesday, November 15, 2011

Friday Nov. 15

Sister Sarah came on the cars this morning.  Mr. and Mrs. Adams returned to Marietta.  We have enjoyed their visit very much.
Gen. Don Carlos Buell is appointed to command in Kentucky in the place of Sherman.  Gen. Buell's mother lives in Marietta.  He is said to be modest, capable, enduring and brave.  He is a native of Ohio, I believe of Marietta.

Peggy's comments:

Monday, November 14, 2011

Thursday Nov. 14

This morning Mr. and Mrs. Nehemiah Adams came on the train.  Mr. Adams is the youngest son of the late Tiffany Adams who came to Ohio in 1816.  During the sickly seasons between 1820 - 1824, Mr. Tiffany Adams and his wife (who was a sister of Uncle Torrey) and four sons all promising young men, died, leaving Nehemiah and Edward orphans.  They went back to Connecticut, are both Christian men and have both been prosperous in business.  Edward now lives in Balise, Central America.  He has but one child, a daughter, now pursuing her studies at Senard Institute, New York.  Mr. Nehemiah Adams is a manufacturer.  He lives at Jewett city, Conn., where he owns a large cotton mill, and also has interest in mills at Pomfret.  His wife is a cultivated, courteous, pleasing woman.  They have no children living.  I went with Mr. Adams to call at Mr. Bailey's and Mr. Joel Deming's and to see his old home on the Gilman farm.  We met Mr. Joseph Hutchinson who told us that it was reported that Jenkins with seven thousand men had come back to Guyandotte.  That they had seized the steamboat, Ohio No. 3 and two other steamers and three thousand of them were on their way to take Marietta.  He seemed a good deal excited but after inquiring into the matter I concluded it was too soon to be frightened.  It is probably a sensational rumor.
In the evening Mr. & Mrs. Joel Deming and Miss Emma Bruchlocker, Miss Betsey and Augustus S. Bailey and Mr. and Mrs. W. D. Bailey called to spend the evening with Mr. and Mrs. Adams.  William got home from Cincinnati this evening.

Sunday, November 13, 2011

Wednesday Nov. 13

I was up a great part of last night with little Sarah.  Answered Mr. Walton's letter.  Mrs. Terril housecleaning.
There is news of a terrible massacre at Guyandotte, Virginia.  One or two companies of Federal troops were stationed there.  Last Sabbath evening while a part of these troops were at church, and others had been invited to the houses of citizens, Jenkins and his band of desperadoes who were concealed near the town awaiting the preconcerted signal rushed in and aided by the citizens, male and female, murdered and captured about one hundred of the soldiers,  -- a most unprovoked and terrible thing.  Col. Bailey, who was a relative of the Baileys of this place, was among the dead.  He was wounded and then thrown from a high bridge and drowned.  Col. Ziegler who was at Point Pleasant on hearing of these things immediately went to Guyandotte.  His men burned the houses of those rebel citizens who had betrayed the slaughtered comrades.

Peggy's comments:
Little Sarah Cutler is Julia's niece, the daughter of William and Lizzie Cutler.  She was 5 years old in 1861.  Julia wrote to Mr. Walton, her brother-in-law from whom she had heard the previous day.

This from Harper's Weekly, November 23, 1861:

On Sunday night, Guyandotte, in Western Virginia, situated on the Ohio River, was attacked by six hundred rebels, and out of one hundred and fifty National troops stationed there, all but fifty were killed or taken prisoners. The rebel force afterward beat a hasty retreat, and nothing has since been heard of them, though a body of National troops has been sent in pursuit. Our troops afterward fired the town of Guyandotte, and it was entirely destroyed.

Saturday, November 12, 2011

Tuesday Nov. 12

Mrs. Male here picking over apples; also Mrs Terril ironing.  William went to Chillicothe.  A letter from Mr. Walton saying that James Pennock, their oldest son, is very sick of typhoid fever.  God pity and spare them their first born if it is His holy will.  
The great Naval Expedition has taken Port Royal and Beaufort, S. C.  The Stars and Stripes are floating triumphantly over a port of that rebellious state, a port rich in cotton and rice and slaves.  The harbor is one of the best on the southern coast.  The position threatens both Savannah and Charleston.  The rebels acknowledge their own loss to be large in the fight which took place near Beaufort.  Of our own loss we yet know nothing.  
The present indications are that the war is to be vigorously prosecuted during the winter.  God grant that our arms may be prospered and so order events that Slavery may die.  How blessed is the truth that God is King.  He doeth his pleasure among the armies of heaven, and among the inhabitants of the earth.  We may safely trust our Country, our friends and ourselves in his hands.  He doeth all things well.

Peggy's Comments:
James Pennock was one of Julia's nephews, the oldest son of her sister Clara.  He was 13 at the time and he did survive the bout of typhoid fever.

The plan for bombarding Fort Walker and Fort Beaureguard was to sail the ships in an elliptical pattern, bombarding each as the ships passed by.  Although this plan broke down, the Federal forces succeeded in capturing both forts.  Loss of life was small.

Here is an interesting article from the current NY Times blog Disunion regarding the naval battles.

Friday, November 11, 2011

Monday Nov. 11

Mr. W. B. Hollister here getting out the foundation stones for Father's monument.

Maggie Voris and Ella Cotton called.  William went out to Tunnel Station in the afternoon.  Mrs. Terril washed.  Two lumber men from New York here to supper.  Seemed quite surprised that we charged them nothing for their fare.  Mr. Douglas Putnam here in the evening, also B. C. Bailey and G W. Bailey.  It is said the great Naval Expedition has landed at Port Royal, South Carolina.  This is "carrying the war into Africa".

Peggy's comments:
Maggie Voris was Lizzie Cutler's 26 year old sister.

William would be going to Tunnel Station regarding RailRoad business.

Mrs. Terril often came to help with housework.

Julia Cutler's father, Ephraim Cutler, was born 13 April 1767 and died 8 July 1853.  He is buried in the Riverview Cemetery (also known as Gravel Bank Cemetery) near where he lived in Warren Township, Ohio.

Tombstone inscription:

Here we are, standing in front of Ephraim Cutler's monument in 2011
Ephraim Cutler

Thursday, November 10, 2011

Sabbath Nov. 10

Mr. Scott preached.  The congregation pretty full.  Went to prayer meeting.  George W. Bailey conducted it.

Wednesday, November 9, 2011

Saturday, Nov. 9

A severe engagement is reported at Belmont, Mo.  The Federal troops under Generals Grant and M'Clernaud fought bravely.  We lost a large number of officers.  The rebels under Gen. Pillow lost very heavily.  Both parties claim the victory.

Tuesday, November 8, 2011

Friday Nov. 8

Kate, the children and I took dinner at Mrs. Burgess' with Mrs. Blackinton and children, Miss Jones and Mrs. Dickey.  Mr. Burgess was absent, gone to preach, I think at a sacramental occasion to a free church near Chillicothe.  William came home from Chillicothe very tired.  Lucy came down with some of her scholars who were going to visit Lizzie Poage.  Little Betty Gates is very sick.

Peggy's comments:
Kate Dawes, Julia's niece, lived with the Cutlers.  Mrs. Burgess was Lizzie Cutler's mother and lived nearby with her husband Rev. Dyer Burgess.  A rather colorful character, here's a reference to Dyer Burgess from an article about Marietta:

Of this time Mr. Russell O'Neal tells of an amusing incident.  That Father Burgess, of Warren, came to preach one Sabbath in the old brick church and when he arose to announce the hymns and saw that they had brought a bass viol into church, he indignantly said:  "We will fiddle and sing the 148th Psalm."

Monday, November 7, 2011

Thursday Nov. 7

Fighting is reported at Gauley between the army under Rosecrans and that under Floyd.  Nancy went home to spend a week visiting in Morgan County.  Marion came down this morning and Ephe also.   He is going to Pomeroy on regimental business.

Peggy's comments:
Nancy Carlin worked in the kitchen in the Cutler household.
Ephe Dawes is moving about as adjutant.
I'm still unsure as to Marion's role--a friend or relative who often accompanied Ephe's mother, Sarah Cutler Dawes.

Sunday, November 6, 2011

Wednesday Nov. 6

Ephe called on us this morning.  He looks very well.  William went to Chillicothe.  A rainy disagreeable day.  Fremont is removed and the West is indignant.  No sufficient cause has been assigned.  It is believed to be the work of wire working politicians who fear Fremont's popularity.  Men like Chase who wish to be President will not heseitate to sacrifice those who stand in their way.  Thus far nothing has transpired to impair confidence in Fremont.  His announcement to his command that he was no longer their leader is gentlemanly, feeling and patriotic.  If he has been wronged, God will right him.

Peggy's Comments:
The reporting during the Civil War often consisted of letters sent from reporters on the scene.  Reports were not always reliable or unbiased.
Two reports from the New York Times November 5, 1861:

Important From Missouri.; Excitement About The Rumored Removal Of Fremont
The following is a special dispatch to the St. Louis Republican: "A good deal of excitement has prevailed in camp for some days past, respecting the report of Gen Fremont's supersession, but Washington advices at headquarters mention nothing of the kind. Gen Fremont's removal would cause intense excitement, and no little trouble in camp. A number of officers declare that they will resign in that event, or insist upon creating him Dictator of the Southwest, independent of the Administration, which is bitterly denounced in camp for its vacillating and injudicious policy respecting this Department."

Our Washington Correspondence.; Storm In Washington--Fears For The Fleet-- Fremont Removed--The President's Reasons--The Tribune's Contraband Enterprise--Historical Names In Washington--M'clellan Not Going Into Winter Quarters At Washington.
WASHINGTON, Saturday Night, Nov. 3, 1861. One of the severest rain-storms ever known in this latitude has prevailed all day. Streets have been converted into made for dashing torrents; cellars, flooded; low lands, overflowed; and the Potomac itself brought up towards high-water mark with a rapidity almost unprecedented. A violent wind has accompanied the rain, giving rise to painful apprehensions in many breasts for the safety of our fleet that lately started in search of a harbor on the inhospitable Southern coast. The most cheerful view that we can take is the one I telegraphed you, to-night, that the fleet either made the harbor it was sailing for, or returned to Hatteras Inlet, and sought safety in Pimlico Sound. If this latter course was taken, the country will have new cause to be gratified by the success of the former naval expedition to Southern waters. So heavy a fall of rain must seriously impede the movement of the army in Virginia. It will be a week, at least, with the most favorable weather, before the roads are firm enough for an advance. The country may rest assured that Gen. MCCLELLAN means to advance, and to prosecute the war actively and unremittingly. He has no thought of going into Winter quarters in front of Washington. Further South it is not so cold, and MCCLELLAN's intention is to Winter in a milder region than even the South bank of the Potomac. I do not mean to say that he may not be disappointed. The natural elements may conspire against him and prevent his moving, as this storm has done. The political elements may restrain him. But it is not credible that a Cabinet edict will be issued against a movement. If left to himself, I have the best authority, for saving that Gen. MCCLELLAN will push the war vigorously and without pause. 
The order transferring the Western Military Department from Gen. Fremont’s to Gen. HUNTER's command, was sent West some days since, and has doubtless reached Gen. Fremont camp before this. The determination of the President to relieve Gen. Fremont of the command, had the hearty approval of every member of the Cabinet. The order was accompanied by no conditions whatever, such as that it was "not to be delivered if Fremont was in presence of the enemy." The President was thoroughly satisfied that Col. MULLIGAN and his army of 3,500 men were sacrificed at Lexington by the incompetency and inefficiency of Fremont; and the escape of PRICE, unpunished, into Arkansas, -- an event foreseen by all military men as certain for weeks past, -- put an end to the hope and promise of Fremont and his friends, that he would, if allowed a chance, "bag" PRICE and retrieve his reputation. The Government has lost now not only MULLIGAN's army, but the enormous expense of Fremont’s campaign, with near 50,000 men into Southwest Missouri, in the fruitless pursuit of the victorious PRICE. If Fremont should go forward into Arkansas, his army, being drawn away from its base, would be cut off and lost; if he returns with it to St. Louis, PRICE will follow his retreating footsteps, and reconquer the greater part of the State; if he leaves enough of his army at Springfield to keep PRICE, MCCULLOCH and Gen. A.S. JOHNSTON out of the State, he will go back to St. Louis stripped of the means to operate effectively on any other field, -- having lost two battles, one General, (LYON,) one Colonel, (MULLIGAN,) and 3,500 men, and spent many millions of dollars, since he assumed command in Missouri, and only ended in putting the State where Gen. LYON had placed it last June. It is upon this record of ineffectual service, connected with voluminous and undoubted evidence of extravagant expenditures and confusion in the accounts of the Department, that the President has felt impelled to remove Gen. Fremont. Some doubts are expressed as to the course Fremont will pursue. It is thought by some that he will demand a Court of Inquiry with a view to vindicate his reputation; while others, who know him better, say he will resign in dudgeon, and let the country henceforth take care of itself. There is even another still smaller class, who think that Fremont will disobey the President's orders and put Gen. HUNTER under arrest for impeaching his military capacity. I confess my anxiety that Gen. Fremont should deport himself as a good soldier and loyal citizen, and pursue the first course -- demand an investigation and relieve himself, if possible, from the charges made against him. He owes so much as that to his friends. The example should inspire him of the illustrious Lieut.-Gen. SCOTT -- the great Captain who has just laid aside the harness of war, enjoying the unbounded love and admiration of the American people. Gen. SCOTT returned from the conquest of Mexico under arrest, and with his glories obscured by a cloud of calumnies. He disproved and lived them down. So may Fremont-- if he is innocent. If he resists the Government, he will sink to infamy and be classed with BENEDICT ARNOLD and AARON BURR. I am sorry to see you giving credit to the Tribune's assertion that it received Gen. STONE's and Gen. THOMAS' reports "in regular course from the War Department." It did no such thing. Gen. STONE's report was published in the Tribune before it ever reached the War Department, even before Gen. MCCLELLAN had read and considered it; whereat the latter was justly indignant. The War Department emphatically denies the Tribune's assertion also, so far as it relates to Gen. THOMAS' report -- the publication of which is so injurious to the public service. The Tribune twits the TIMES with lack of "enterprise" in not having secured these reports first. If the War Department and Gen. MCCLELLAN are to be believed, it is only an "enterprise" such as sometimes leads men into serious restrictions of their personal liberty that won the Tribune's recent successes. The TIMES can well afford to let the parties implicated in the guilt settle the question of veracity. Among the visitors at Washington, whose presence revives historical associations, is THOMAS H. CLAY, oldest son of HENRY CLAY, who is here to promote the interests of the Unionists in Kentucky with the Government. He is very like his illustrious father in feature, as he is in spirit. He has been, from the first, one of the boldest opponents of secession in Kentucky, and has done much, in his effective labors, to redeem the name of his great sire from the contamination of these degenerate times. It has been proposed, I learn, to return THOMAS H. CLAY to the United States Senate in place of BRECKINRIDGE. A sounder patriot could not fill a seat in the Senate; and the old friends of HENRY CLAY, again visiting Washington, would be startled to see a face so like their ancient idol's occupying a place in the Senate.

Saturday, November 5, 2011

Tuesday Nov. 5, 1861

We had Mrs. Blackinton, Miss Jones, Mrs. Dickey, Mrs. A. S. Bailey, Miss Louise Carpenter and Miss Kroeger and Maggie here to tea.

Friday, November 4, 2011

Monday Nov. 4th

A fleet of three steam boats three of them lashed together passed down this morning with flags flying having on board the 51' Ohio Volunteer Infantry, Col. Stanley Matthews, on his way to Kentucky.  They are armed with Enfield rifles.  William and Lizzie went to Mr. Burgess's to dinner.  Kate and Annie rode out to invite some friends to tea tomorrow.
I wrote to Martha A. Carter enclosing thirty dollars.

Peggy's comments:
Stanley Matthews was born in Kentucky in 1824.   He moved to Cincinnati in 1844 where he practiced law and was active in politics as a Democrat.  He held strong anti-slavery views, however, and with the outbreak of the Civil War, he became a Republican and volunteered for service with the army.

Here's a youtube video of Civil War re-enactors demonstrating loading and firing Enfield rifles.

Julia Cutler's father, Ephraim Cutler, moved to Ohio in 1795 with his first wife, Leah Atwood Cutler.  They travelled with their four children, one of whom was Nancy Cutler.  Nancy's daughter Martha A. Carter is the woman mentioned in today's journal entry.  Martha was 32 years old and unmarried in 1861.

Wednesday, November 2, 2011

Saturday, Nov. 2

Rainy all day.  Several employees settling accounts with William.  Letters from both Ephraim and Rufus.  The Ohio 53' is filling up slowly but expects to be complete soon.  Rufus gives us a picture of the celebrities, DeJoinville, Seward, M'Clellan, M'Dowell, &c. - quite interesting.

Lieut. Gen. Scott in consequence of his infirmities and age has resigned his position as Commander of the Army and that duty by unanimous consent of the Cabinet now devolves upon McClellan.  May God whom he has tried to honor, bless and prosper him.  I believe that he has been raised up to be the instrument of good to this people.

Peggy's comments:
Many people thought that the war would be settled by one large battle.  Gen. Scott, aged 75, thought it would be a long and drawn out conflict.  Union hopes were pinned on General McClellan.  For further discussion on the change in command, see the Civil War Daily Gazette blog.

General Winfield Scott, 1861

General George B. McClellan

Tuesday, November 1, 2011

Friday Nov. 1st, 1861

William from Chillicothe, Kate, who went to town today and Lucy came on the evening train.  It began to rain about sunset.  It was dark and muddy getting from the station.  
The question of forming the new state of Kanawha has been submitted to the vote of the people of western Virginia who appear to be almost a unit in favor of the measure.  In Wood county the vote stood 1011 to 45 in favor of the measure.  
William and Lizzie were married twelve years ago today.

Peggy's comments:
There were about 20 years difference in the ages of William and Lizzie Cutler.  Lizzie was 17 when she married William in 1849.  By 1861, Lizzie had given birth to 5 children, and only 2 were still living.

The northwestern counties of Virginia seceded from Virginia when it seceded from the United States.  Kanawha was the proposed name for the new state (it was the name of a river and also a Native American term meaning "place of white stone".)  The vote was held on October 24, 1861 with a large majority of those voting in favor of becoming a new state.
1862 Map Showing the
Proposed State of Kanawha
Frank Leslie's Pictorial History of the
American Civil War, 1862 (Ma61- 25)

Monday, October 31, 2011

Thursday Oct. 31

Ohio has now 60,250 enlisted men, 83 regiments of infantry have been authorized, 38 of these are now in active service in Virginia, Kentucky and Missouri.  There are also five companies of cavalry and eleven batteries of Artillery.  All eyes look toward the Army of the Potomac, but M'Clellan keeps his own counsel.  When he really strikes a blow we believe by the blessing of God it will be effectual.  
The great Naval Expedition has sailed from Fortress Monroe under command of Commodore S. F. Dupont.  The armament consists of about 400 guns.  There are more than fifty vessels in the fleet which will be augmented by some now on the coast.  The Wabash, carrying fifty guns of the most formidable description is the flag ship.  Her crew include about 650 men and marines.  The military part of the expedition consists of at least 15,000 men under command of Gen. Thos. W. Sherman formerly of "Sherman's Battery". He is considered one of the best officers in the army.  All the Generals with this force are West Point graduates.  The destination is not yet made public.  Under God who alone is sovereign we look to the Amy of the Potomac and the Naval Expedition to crush the Rebellion.  
Mr. and Mrs. G. W. Bailey spent the evening here.

Peggy's comments:

Two images of the flag ship, the Wabash.

Sunday, October 30, 2011

Wednesday, Oct. 30

Kate took Emeline who spent the night with us, home in the buggy.  Lizzie canned apple sauce.  I made tomato pickles.  Nancy ironed.  All tired at night.

There are now sick in hospital at Galliplis 400 or our soldiers from the western Virginia army, and many more have been sent to Cincinnati and Camp Dennison.   The ladies at these places are doing much for the comfort of the invalids.  The Marietta ladies have contributed supplies for the Gallipolis hospital.  Mr. Beman Gates and others who have visited the Army under Rosecrans say that they are now completely clothed and fed, and provided with all things needful; that the complaints cone from those who are invalids and physically unable to endure hardship; and from those who have previous to enlistment been accustomed to luxurious living and, so, murmur at soldiers' fare, however good.

Saturday, October 29, 2011

Tuesday Oct. 29

William started on the train for Chillicothe.  It is nearly three months since he was there and now it was quite hazardous for him to go.  He is still weak.

Mrs. W. D. Bailey called.  Kate and Lizzie out driving.  Emeline M'Clure and Eliza Hopkins spent the afternoon here.  We had a pleasant call from George Dana, Jr., his wife and four children.  Gen. Kelly has achieved a federal victory at Romney, Va.

Friday, October 28, 2011

Monday Oct. 28

Mr. Burgess and Mr. Kimball here in the afternoon, staid to tea.  Today's paper gives particulars of the fight at Edwards Ferry in which Col. Baker fell.  Many of our soldiers are dead, wounded or missing.  Some accounts say 1000.  This is probably an exaggerated statement.  The rebels admit a loss of 300.  Is our land to be indeed, a land of graves and a field of blood?  The body guard of Gen. Fremont under Major Zagoni, made a brilliant charge on 2000 of the enemy drawn up in line of battle at Springfield, Mo. and completely routed them.

Peggy's comments:
Mr. Burgess, Lizzie Cutler's step-father, was formerly a minister and Mr. Kimball was the current Presbyterian minister from Marietta.

The fight at Edward's Ferry was an example of a battle fought because of miscommunication.   Here's an account written by historian James Morgan.
And here's a map of the area from Harper's Weekly, Sept. 21, 1861:

Thursday, October 27, 2011

Sabbath Oct. 27

Good congregation.  Mr. Scott preached on prayer:  Ask and ye shall receive &c., a very good sermon.  At the afternoon prayer meeting, Mr. Pisquod appeared.  The meeting was led by Peter Kimball who was thirty years ago minister at Watertown, a worthy but somewhat eccentric man.   

Peggy's comments:
Peter Kimball was a Presbyterian minister who spent two years in Marietta.  I could find no written references to any of his eccentricities.

Wednesday, October 26, 2011

Saturday, Oct. 26

Lizzie has been busy making cakes.  Two large loaves nicely iced are in the safe awaiting events.  There is a statement in the Tribune of the number of soldiers furnished by the loyal states to the Government and now in the field.  The total is 360,000 and enough more ready for service to make the number 400,000.

Tuesday, October 25, 2011

Friday Oct. 25

Not so pleasant as yesterday.  A late Intelligence says that the quota of Washington Co. is nine hundered and six, one in every forty inhabitants, our population being 36, 236.  We have already sent into the service 1200 men, viz: five full companies of infantry, Capt. King's, Fell's, Devol's, Palmer's and Moore's, one of cavalry, Capt. Pattin's, also Capt. Buell's company.  Besides there are parts of companies.  Capt. Rhodes 50, Capt. Jumper 50, DeBecks Artillery 50, Bolles' Cavalry 50, and 200 men guarding the railroad.  Two other regiments have been authorized and are now being formed at Marietta, the 63' Col. Craig at Camp Putnam and the 77" Col Hilderbrand at Camp Tupper on the Elevated Square.  Col. Hilderbrand desired to call his camp, "Cutler", in compliment to William, but the Nyes claimed the "honor".  The Col. would not have it "Camp Nye."  They finally compromised on "Tupper".   Lizzie came home this evening.

Peggy's comments:
Julia may be referring to the Marietta Intelligencer, a tri-weekly Republican leaning newspaper that was published between 1839 and 1862.

It is clear that Julia thinks that Washington County Ohio has contributed its share of men to the war effort.

Ichabod Nye was one of the original settlers in Marietta, Ohio.  His descendants continued to live and be active in Marietta.

Anselm Tupper was a revolutionary war officer and subsequently one of the original pioneers to Marietta, Ohio.  He served as Marietta's first school teacher and was admired as a scholar and welcomed into society.  Naming a camp after him was non-controversial.  Camp Tupper  was located on the elevated green between Third and Fourth Streets and Sacra Via and Warren in Marietta.  It was the encampment and training grounds for the 77th Ohio.

The correct spelling of the Colonel of the 77th Ohio is Jesse Hildebrand.

Monday, October 24, 2011

Thursday Oct. 24

Lizzie went to Marietta with her mother on a visit.  Mr. Burgess and Mr. Brice called.  I went with the children nutting.  William had John climb the trees and eat off the nuts.  George also was along and gathered some excellent Hill grapes.  Pleasant day.
Lucy came down to spend the night.  She brought a letter from Rufus who is now in McDowells Division.  The Wisconsin Sixth is in Virginia near Arlington Heights.  He says they work hard.  He considers the grand reviews a great bore.  The last one, of King's brigade to which his regiment belongs was attended by Secretary Seward.  Prince de Joinville and Lord Lyons.  

Peggy's comments:
Lizzie, William Cutler's wife, had grown up living near the Cutler's Old Stone House.  Her mother, Mrs. Burgess, still lived nearby with Lizzie's stepfather Dyer Burgess.

Rufus Dawes, Julia's nephew, wrote frequently throughout his service during the war, and used the letters and his journals to write Service with the Sixth Wisconsin Volunteers, which was published in 1890.

Sunday, October 23, 2011

Wednesday Oct. 23

I spent most of the day in the garden preparing tulip beds and monthly roses for winter.  A large number, I should think three or four hundred army horses taken down today, one man to every five horses.  Some of those who were leading the horses seemed to be mere boys.  I was sorry to see them.  It is a bad school for them.  
The reported death of Lieut. Kelly is false.  He sent the despatch about Tilton's death.  A battle at Edwards Ferry -- severe.  Col. E. D. Baker, senator from Oregon was killed  -- much regretted.

Peggy's Comments:
Lincoln named his second son, Edward Baker Lincoln, after his close friend Edward Dickinson Baker.  Col. Edward Baker, a senator from Oregon, was killed in battle in Virginia, the only sitting Senator to die in the Civil War.  Commemorative activities to honor the senator are taking place this year both in Oregon and in Virginia.

Saturday, October 22, 2011

Tuesday Oct. 22

Ephe came to tell us goodbye and has gone again to Camp Dennison.  Marion went back to town today.  She is rather expecting Mr. Hunter this week.  
Kate and I went to call at Augustus Bailey's and also went to the graveyard where I planted some roses &c. on Manasseh's grave. Mrs. Moses Scott has just heard of the death of her brother, Douglas Tilton, at Somersville, Va. He was a member of Capt. Moore's Company and died in hospital.  It is also said that 1st Lieut. Joseph Kelly of the same Company was buried on the same day at the same place.  Our army have retaken Lexington in Missouri.  

Peggy's comments:
Ephraim is rejoining his unit, the 53rd Ohio, which has not yet seen active duty.

Marion is a friend (or maybe a relative?) of Sarah Dawes, but I don't know about Mr. Hunter.

Kate and Julia planted roses on the grave of Manasseh Cutler, Julia's brother who died at age 12 in 1822.

Friday, October 21, 2011

Monday Oct. 21

Ephe came down this morning and Kate went to town with him returning in the evening.  The train was delayed two hours which made it after eight before she got home.  She bought herself a set of Motley's Dutch Republic and a rocking chair with money William gave her.

Peggy's comments:
Ephraim Dawes, Julia's nephew, is still on leave from the 53rd Ohio.

Motley's Dutch Republic refers to a three volume set of books, The Rise of the Dutch Republic:  A History  by John Lothrop Motley.  I can picture Kate sitting in her new rocking chair, reading about the establishment of a Dutch Republic.

Thursday, October 20, 2011

Sabbath, Oct. 20

Last night quite a fleet of steamboats passed.  I suppose they had on board Gen. Negley's brigade of Pennsylvanians bound for the West.  Three more steamers with soldiers passed this morning.  NO preaching but a sermon read to a good congregation.

Peggy's comments:
General James S. Negley of Pennsylvania was in command of the Seventh Brigade, Department of the Ohio (along the Ohio River).

Wednesday, October 19, 2011

Saturday, Oct. 19

We are anxious to hear from Rufus.  His brigade we find from the newspapers, is now in M'Dowell's division and is at Vienna.  A battle has been expected for several days, but the rebels do not seem anxious to fight.  We get no letters now.  Ephe came home unexpectedly on the evening train on a furlough until Tuesday.  He looks very well and seems to be in good spirits.  The regiment is filling up slowly but he thinks it will will succeed, hopes it will be full in two weeks.  Unexpected difficulties have occurred to retard the increase of numbers.  Sarah and Lucy went home with Ephe shortening their visit here.

Peggy's comments:
Rufus was still near Washington, DC at Arlington Heights.  Reading his book Service with the Sixth Wisconsin Volunteers, I find no evidence that he sent to Vienna to the Battle of Ball's Bluff which occurred October 21,1861.

Ephe Dawes, Rufus's brother, was the Adjutant of the 53rd Ohio Volunteers.  The regiment needed to reach a quota before it was accepted and assigned into service.

Lucy was Ephe's sister and Sarah was his mother.

Tuesday, October 18, 2011

Friday, Oct. 18

Mr. Israel Waters was here to dinner.  Sarah and Lucy came on the evening train.  They will stay till Monday.  
Much is said about the sufferings of our troops in the mountains of Virginia for want of blankets, overcoats, and comfortable clothing.  I hope the accounts are exaggerated, but it seems they are fast becoming unfit for service, on account of exposure to the cold rains which produce sickness, typhoid fever &c.  When I think what careful nursing and careful attention was necessary for William's recovery, I wonder any of the poor soldiers get well, neglected as they are.  It is said that in Gallipolis alone there are five hundred sick, sent back from Rosecrans' army.  They have also been sent to Cincinnati.  Those in the Marine Hospital were shamefully treated but the citizens are investigating the matter.  A number have been sent to Camp Dennison, where it is hoped they will be cared for.  The Secretary of War, Gen. Cameron is now in Ohio--he has been at St. Louis.  
It is said that the President has decided to remove Gen. Fremont from the command of the Western Department.  I am sorry for I like Fremont, but we are told that the relations between the Government and Fremont are such as to render the change absolutely necessary.  We are told that the President is Commander-in-Chief and must have entire control of his subordinates, and the people are asked to trust his knowledge and discretion.

Peggy's comments:
Sarah Dawes (Julia's older sister) and Sarah's daughter Lucy lived in Marietta--only 6 miles away.

General Fremont caused a great deal of concern for Lincoln.  His goals and actions did not always coincide with the President's goals.  To read an interesting appraisal of Fremont's actions, go here.

Monday, October 17, 2011

Thurs. Oct. 17

Mr. Hunter and John Bailey came to sell out John's interest in the property near the meeting house &c. which William bought for nine hundred dollars.  Kate and Lizzie went to Mr. Burgess' to dine.  Mrs. Newton, Mrs. Harriet Means, Mrs. Evans and Miss Maria Woodbridge are spending the day there.  It has been a rainy day.  A large number of horses and mules for the army have passed down the road today.  

Peggy's comments:

Kate, Julia's niece, and Lizzie, William's wife, were about the same age.  They went to the Burgess's (Lizzie's mother and step-father) who lived within walking distance.

Here's a stereoscope picture of mules and wagons used during the Civil War.  This picture was taken in 1862 in Virginia.

Sunday, October 16, 2011

Wednesday, Oct. 16

Sent a letter to Clara today.  It is a long time since we have heard from Pana, and I fear that they are in trouble.  Mr. Jenney of Marietta with his son came to see William about getting the latter in at West Point.  But Mr. Thompkins, the former Congressman, had filled the vacancy for this district so there is no opening.  Mr. Stewart, Cashier at Athens sent by train a present of quails to William, very acceptable as his appetite is capricious.   A letter from Amesville says "Dr. L. Fulton has just returned from Camp Diamond where he saw Ephe, who, he says is very much liked by the soldiers and is the right man for that place".

Peggy's comments:
Clara Walton is Julia's younger sister.  She married a minister and lived in Pana, Illinois which was about 500 miles west of Marietta, Ohio.  Clara had 5 children, 2 of whom died in infancy.  Julia talks about hardships Clara faced, but is rarely specific.