Tuesday, May 31, 2011

Friday May 31

This morning rumors of a skirmish near Parkersburg in which one of the Union Blues is said to have been killed, also six secessionists --  probably not true.  Rumors of every description are afloat.  Lizzie and I took dinner at B. C. Bailey's with Mr. and Mrs. Munsell.  It is rumored that the secessionists had planned to burn Marietta and other towns in Ohio.  The Government troops are still advancing upon Virginia.  Lucy came down.  We prepared lint all day.

Editor's comments:
The immediacy of the war, even in the early stages, is apparent in Julia's journal entries as she expresses the concern for the Union Blues, a regiment from Ohio, the rumors of danger that their town might be invaded and burned, and the work of preparing lint to be used as bandages.

Monday, May 30, 2011

Thursday May 30

Went in the morning to see little Charlie Bailey.  Found him quite sick.  He fell into their cistern night before last and nearly drowned.  He is now suffering from congestion of the lungs.  Mr. and Mrs. Munsell, Kate and I went up to the graveyard before dinner.  I went with our friends to Mr. Burgess' to tea.
It is reported that Bill Scott took up a horse to sell for the use of the flying artillery.  Gen. Buttles liked the horse and did not object to the price, but before the bargain was completed, some one informed the General that Scott was a secessionist.  Whereupon he told Scott he could go home with his horse, as he would have nothing to do with traitors.  Mr. Scott thereupon appealed to an acquaintance standing by to endorse his loyalty, which he declined to do.  Scott blustered, but by the time three or 400 men had gathered around, he "sang small".  
Ohio troops are advancing toward Grafton from Wheeling in connection with loyal Virginia troops from camp Carlisle on Wheeling Island.  The 14" and 18" are moving from Parkersburg toward the same point.  Col. Steadman of the 14" leads this movement.  They took possession of the telegraph and will of the railroad.  It is said that they frightened Judge Jackson so seriously that he being a secessionist has decamped.  Gen'l M'Clellan has issued a proclamation to loyal Virginians assuring them of protection for themselves and their property and their magnificent railroads.  We are all picking lint for the soldiers and making pin cushions for their convenience.

Editor's comments:
During the Civil War, women would "pick lint" from old clothes and it would be repacked to be used by surgeons as dressings for wounds.  Another way women could provide aid to soldiers was to prepare things that they needed.  Since soldiers would need to do their own mending, compact pin cushions filled with buckshot were made by women and sent to the regiments.  Here's a link to a pin cushion replica pattern.

Sunday, May 29, 2011

Wednesday, May 29

Kate went with Mr. and Mrs. Munsell to Marietta.  Troops have been passing from Camp Putnam to Virginia.  The Lizzie Martin went down with part of the 18th regiment this morning to Parkersburg.  Going back she had on board the Gallia company under Capt. Aylshire.  They were wrapped in white blankets and looked rather grotesque.  Kate saw Capt. Aylshire in town and sent him a bouquet of flowers, red, white, and blue.  In the afternoon the Webster went down with two barges in tow having the remainder of the 18" regiment on board.  Their red uniforms were very showy.  They had also a splendid flag.  Returning again the Webster took down in the evening two companies of Light Artillery.  This looks as if something will be done in western Virginia soon.  Probably they will advance upon Grafton and dislodge the secessionists from that place.  Our troops were in high spirits, anxious to go and meet the rebels.  The issue is with God.  May He inspire that courage which will lead to valorous deeds.

Saturday, May 28, 2011

Tuesday May 28, 1861

William goes to Chillicothe.  The railroad employees have struck; troublous times are these.  Letter from Clara.  She needs help.  Can we extend it to her?  I do not know but we shall all be swamped.  Let us submit --  patience, patience!  God knows what is best.  
Mr. and Mrs. Munsell came today.  They have sold their property in Illinois and will probably remain in Ohio.  She has told me enough about Clara and the west to convince me that Illinois is not El Dorado.  
George E. Cutler, the only son of my late brother, Charles, has enlisted in the 17th regiment O.V.M. [Ohio Volunteer Militia] and is now at Camp Anderson near Lancaster.  He is an orderly sergeant.  The Union Blues went down on the cars today.  We waved to them and they hurrahed as they passed.  The 14th regiment left sixty six in camp.  Sarah is going to offer to assist in nursing.  She thinks of Rufus and is doing as she wishes to have him done by, if away from friends sick.  I wrote to Clara today.

Editor's comments:
Julia had a great many family concerns on her mind today.

Her brother William was an officer on the board of the Marietta and Cincinnati Rail Road and striking railroad workers would disrupt railroad service.  The M&C Rail Road meetings were held in Chillicothe, Ohio.

Clara is Julia's youngest sister.  Clara had married when she was 30, bore 5 children, and was 45 in 1861. She lived in Pana, Illinois, which was about 500 miles due west of Marietta, Ohio.

Julia's half-brother, Charles Cutler, was born in 1792 and died heading west to California in 1849.

Julia's sister Sarah Cutler Dawes was the mother of Rufus R. Dawes who had raised a company of volunteers in Wisconsin, where he had been working for his father.  He was to begin service as Captain in Company K, 6th Wisconsin Volunteers, but in late May, 1861, Rufus was still in Wisconsin, awaiting orders.  On May 27, Rufus' mother, Sarah Cutler Dawes wrote to him from Marietta:
All of the first ladies in the city have given their names to nurse or furnish supplies for the sick.   As yet we have no system, but hope to get organized in a day or two.  The hospital is an old brick building near the Fair ground.  There are thirty-nine sick men there to-day, and they are far from comfortable.  But the Citizens are sending in things every day and we shall soon get fixed.  Most of the men are sick with the measles.  There is one case of typhoid fever.  Another regiment (18th Ohio) came in to-day.  Everybody is making bandages, lint, and Havelock caps.  L___ has made five and a half dozens of plasters of mutton tallow, spread on linen rags, four inches square and done up neatly in oiled silk, very acceptable, the surgeons say.

Friday, May 27, 2011

Monday May 27

This is Ephe's birthday.  He is now twenty-one.  
Mr. B. C. Bailey was here this morning, says the quarter masters like the ground at the Gravel Pit and will probably send some of the companies down this week to prepare the parade grounds etc.  
Lucy and Marion went to Marietta with William.

The 14th Regiment under Col. Steadman at Camp Putnam received orders last night after they were in bed to advance this morning into Virginia with six days rations.  They went to Parkersburg on the steamer Ohio and encamped expecting to advance upon Grafton (which is in possession of secession troops) by way of the Northwestern Railroad.  Quarter Master Kingsbury who dined here yesterday goes with his regiment into Virginia.  They were to leave Parkersburg today at four o'clock p.m.  The citizens of Marietta presented them with a beautiful stand of colors.  Soon they will be engaged in the fearful struggle.  God strengthen them to fight and shield them from dangers seen and unseen.  
The 18th, into which the Marietta Union Blues were mustered, arrives at Camp Putnam tonight from Athens.  They are mostly from southern Ohio.  
Bennet C. Bailey says from what he can learn of the state of feeling, the contest in Virginia will be fearful -- father against son -- brother against brother.  In the Cook family, cousins to the Bailey's, Paul is rabidly secession, Bennet as decidedly union, while James remains neutral.  
The reported battle at Sewall's Point is not confirmed.
Mr. McMasters called to wait for the train and train time has been again an hour later than before.

Editor's comments:
Ephe is Ephraim Dawes, Julia's nephew, (the son of Sarah Cutler Dawes, Julia's sister).  Julia was particularly close to the Dawes' nieces and nephews who returned to the Old Stone House to live in 1840.

Parkersburg, Virginia, is across the Ohio River from Marietta, Ohio.

Thursday, May 26, 2011

Sabbath May 26, 1861

Mr. Wakefield preached an excellent practical sermon from Job 34:33, "Shall it be according to thy mind".  During sermon a carriage filled with military men, and two officers on splendid horses passed the church.  When we got home from sabbath-school we found them all here.  They were Gen. Buttles, Col. Barnet, Col Sturges (sic), Quartermaster Brown, Quarter Master Kingsbury and Quarter Master Townshend.  They all, with Mr. Wakefield, staid to dinner.  They are very gentlemanly.  
Col. Barnet of the 1st Regiment of Light Artillery, now stationed at Camp Putnam, is a Cleveland hardware merchant, wealthy and a good man.  Lieut. Col. Sturgess is a banker.  Quarter Master Brown, now at Camp Putnam, resigned his seat in the Ohio Legislature to enter the service.  Kingsbury is connected with the 14" Regiment of Light Infantry now in Camp Putnam.  Gen. Buttles is a Columbus man, I believe.  He is here on a tour of reconnoissance and has the over sight of the quarter master's department of southern Ohio and will not long remain, as I suppose.  Quarter Master Townshend is a gentleman in his manners and belongs to the Light Artillery.  He gave us a family "pass" to visit Camp Putnam.
They report a battle at Sewall's Point yesterday.  United States troops took possession of it, having 84 killed and wounded.  Rebels had between three and four hundred killed and wounded, and a large number of prisoners taken.  There has also been a skirmish at Arlington Heights, result not reported.  These officers are thinking of moving their camp to Gravel Pit.  There are now about 1100 men in Camp Putnam.  About eight o'clock this evening a steamboat passed down with music, drum beating, men hurrahing.  There are probably volunteer troops aboard.  (It proved to be the Clarksburg company).  
This has been a strange sabbath.  For the first time in my life I have seen bona fide soldiers, who expect to fight and if God wills it to die on the field of battle.  It is sad to think how soon these gallant men may be laid low.  But God reigns, and in the sermon today we were taught submission to his high behests.

Editor's comments:
Julia frequently mentions attending Sunday meeting and sabbath school and she occasionaly comments on the sermon (or the delivery of the sermon).  As I am unfamiliar with this quote in the Bible, I searched for it on biblos.com, a site the compares different editions of the Bible.  Here are the comments about Job 34:33:
Should it be according to thy mind? - Margin, as in Hebrew "from with thee" - המעמך hamē‛imekā. There has been much diversity of opinion in regard to the meaning of this verse. It is exceedingly obscure in the original, and has the appearance of being a proverbial expression. The general sense seems to be, that God will not be regulated in his dealings by what may be the views of man, or by what man might be disposed to choose or refuse. He will act according to his own views of what is right and proper to be done. The phrase, "should it be according to thy mind," means that it is not to be expected that God will consult the views and feelings of man rather than his own.

I was curious about the officers who visited the Cutlers but was unable to track all of them.  What I did discover was that some of these men enlisted for a short period, e.g., three months, then reenlisted in other regiments from Ohio.  This reminded me that many thought the war would be of short duration and some of the first volunteers were concerned that the war might be over before they had the opportunity to see action.

Wednesday, May 25, 2011

Saturday May 25

William is about home today which has been seldom the case lately.  Lucy is quite sick.  
Did not get our Cincinnati Gazette today, but received dispatches which state that Alexandria was taken by federal (i.e. government) troops, but with the loss of Col. Elsworth of the New York Zouave regiment, -- a gallant young officer, who is much lamented.  He was I believe, an Illinoisian, had visited the Crimea and on his return taught a company in Chicago the Zouave drill, then went to New York city where he enlisted the fire-companies for the same service.  The pranks of Elsworth's Zouaves in and about Washington have supplied many newspapers items.  They saved Willard Hotel from being destroyed by fire.  At  Alexandria it was Col. Elsworth who took down the secession flag and run up the Stars and Stripes.  Soon after he was fired upon and killed by a concealed foe, who is reported to have been discovered and immediately put to death.  The Zouaves threaten to take a terrible revenge.  Twelve thousand troops have been sent into Virginia.  The war has begun.  God give success to our armed hosts.  A company of troops from Clarksburg, Va., went up to Wheeling today to get their arms to fight for the Union.

Editor's Comments:
There were several regiments which were "Zouave" units, i.e., styled after North African units that were fighting for the French in the 1830s.  The uniforms were distinctive:  baggy pants, a vest and short jacket, and a fez.

Julia refers to Col. Elsworth (correct spelling is Colonel Elmer Ellsworth) who formed a Zouave unit and toured with it in 1860, challenging other military units to drill competitions.

Cover on Harper's Weekly, May 26, 1861
Ellsworth and his unit of fire-fighting Zouaves did indeed extinguish a fire in Washington.  Ellsworth had recruited a regiment of New York fire fighters and the recruits made their way to Washington.  On May 9, 1861, fire broke out at the Willard Hotel.  The fire-fighting Zouaves helped save the building.

Elmer Ellsworth
Two weeks later news of Virginia's secession spurred Ellsworth to march his troops to Alexandria.  He found an inn above which waved a Confederate flag.  He was determined to take down the flag and did so himself.   Coming down the staircase of the inn, Ellsworth  was shot by the owner of the inn, who was immediately shot by one of the men in Ellsworth's unit.  Col. Ellsworth was the first Union officer to die in the Civil War.

Tuesday, May 24, 2011

Friday May 24

Kate and Lucy went to Mr. Burgess' to tea.  William came home on train.  He was very tired.  Troops are being thrown into Virginia from Washington.  It is expected there will be fighting at Alexandria and about Fortress Monroe soon.

Monday, May 23, 2011

Thursday, May 23, 1861

Kate & Lucy drove over to see Miss O'Hara's garden, and returned with a bucket full of flowers.  Lizzie Poage here to dinner.  
Virginia votes today on Secession.  No doubt it [Virginia] will go out with an over whelming majority, the soldiers being required to vote and almost the whole confederate army scattered over the state to coerce union men, and increase the secession vote.  There will soon be a fight at or near Fortress Monroe.  The Confederate army threatens southern Pennsylvania.  Gen. Scott says he needs 60,000 men for the Ohio border.  Are we to see with our own eyes the conflict between freedom and slavery?  May God help us in the hour of need.

Henry McClure has returned from the south.  His brothers are still there.  As he has been some weeks in Illinois he brings no news to relieve the anxiety of friends.

Mr. Briggs, our road supervisor, called to see about timber for repairing bridges.  He had been to Marietta to consult with county commissioners.  They showed him a letter from the General (M'Clellan I suppose) requiring the roads to be put in order for the transit of troops.

Editor's comments:
Lizzie Poage was the 13 year-old niece of Lizzie Cutler.  Lizzie Poage was raised by her grandmother, Mrs. Burgess, who lived near the Cutlers, after her own mother died in childbirth at age 20.

A convention of the state of Virginia had met the previous week and passed an Order of Secession.  A vote of the people to be taken May 23 would ratify the order.

Sunday, May 22, 2011

Wednesday May 22

Maggie here to dinner after which we went up on to the hill to the cabin by the spring, Lucy, Kate & Lizzie, & little Sarah going in the buggy, the others across the woods by the "Heads of Ichabod".  We had a pleasant time and came home and found Ephe and Mr. Fleeke here.  They staid to tea.  Lucy made them bouquets from the garden of red, white and blue.  Ephe has another letter from Rufus.  He has increased his company to 100 men and tendered their services to the governor of Wisconsin, who accepts them with a promise of a place in the 1st Regiment.  Whether they are sent in the first or some other regiment there is little doubt but they will have a chance to see service.  May He, in whose hand our life is, watch over and preserve him.

Editor's comments:
This sounds like a pleasant day for the Cutler and Dawes women.  Julia was accompanied by her sister-in-law Lizzie, along with Lizzie's sister Maggie, and Lizzie's daughter Sarah (who was 6 years old), and Julia's nieces Lucy and Kate Dawes.

"Ephe" is Ephraim Cutler Dawes, Julia's nephew and the youngest brother of Lucy and Kate Dawes.  In 1861, he was 21, and he would later join the 53rd Ohio Regiment.  Brother Rufus Dawes had been working for their father in Wisconsin when Lincoln called for volunteers.  He raised a company which was attached with the 6th Wisconsin Volunteers.

Saturday, May 21, 2011

Tuesday May 21

Messrs. Cole & Henderson from Virginia called.  They say the union feeling is on the increase.  They are determined to have a new state and to abide by the old flag.  
Kate and Lucy came on the cars.  Lucy is yet feeble.  
Nothing very remarkable has yet occurred.  The whole country is in a state of expectancy, not knowing what a day may bring forth.  The stake is a fearful one --  --  the very existence of the nation.

Editor's comments:
Cole and Henderson are common names, however there were delegates to the First Wheeling Convention from Wood County by those names.  A vote by the people for or against secession was scheduled in Virginia for May 23.

Friday, May 20, 2011

Monday May 20

William went to Chillicothe.  Very rainy day.  The boys killed 204 rats in the barn today.  Gen. Butler has charge of the department of Virginia, North Carolina & Tennessee, with 20,000 troops under his command.  He will probably March south.  Gen. Cadwallader is in command at Baltimore.  Gen. Mansfield is to cooperate with Gen. Butler in Virginia.

Editor's comments:
Have you noticed that William is often going to Chillicothe?  It is a town about 110 miles west of Marietta, Ohio and about 45 miles south of Columbus, Ohio.  Meetings of the board of the Marietta and Cincinnati Railroad were held in Chillicothe and William was on the board.

Thursday, May 19, 2011

Sabbath May 19, 1861

I was not at meeting but the family all attended.  Young Mr. Condit preached.  Toward night a passenger train came down with Lieut. Poe to consult with William about transporting troops and about selecting a camp.

Editor's notes:
William P. Cutler, Julia's brother, was on the board of the Marietta and Cincinnati Rail Road.

Wednesday, May 18, 2011

Saturday May 18

Mr. Waters and Mr. Hovey came down to see William today.  They want him to go to Columbus Monday.  They are dissatisfied at the neglect of the Governor to send forces to Camp Putnam.  This and some other matters they wish him to attend to.  
Jefferson Davis
There has been talk of removing the capital of the southern Confederacy from Montgomery to Richmond, Va., but it has not been done yet.  It has been proposed at Montgomery and advocated in some southern papers to invest Jeff Davis with dictatorial powers;:  What next?  A large proportion of the southern army is now in Virginia.  It is believed that Davis designs to command it in person.  Davis is more than fifty years old.  It is said of his personal appearance:  "He might be a preacher for any fire-eating expression about him.  But for the square and straight opened eyes and habitually closed mouth, firm as iron no one would suspect Davis of being the civil and military leader of the great national movement."  
It is said now that the Government has 40,000 men at the Capital, 5000 at Fortress Monroe, from 5000 to 10,000 in Maryland and overlooking the borders of Virginia.  50,000 more are standing to their arms east of the Alleghenies ready to be precipitated on the point that needs them most.  All this has been accomplished since the President's proclamation four weeks ago, while at the west war-like preparations have been pushed forward with astonishing vigor. 
"Ohio alone is putting in motion an army twice as large as that commanded by Napoleon the first in his earliest and most brilliant campaign in Italy."  "A wild enthusiasm" has swept the whole northwest like a prairie fire, -- the men and the money free will offerings.  
God grant to our soldiers patient endurance under hardships, nerve and valor in the day of battle and victory for the right.

Editor's comments:

William Cutler, Julia's brother, had been elected to the House of Representatives from Ohio.  He was a well respected speaker in south-eastern Ohio and a well-respected business man.  Fort Putnam was near Marietta and its citizens were concerned for their safety.

Tuesday, May 17, 2011

Friday May 17

Kate went to town to see Lucy who is sick.  Major Anderson of Sumpter, now Colonel, who has come west to take command of Kentucky troops, arrived in Cincinnati today.  A grand reception was given him.  There are said to be ten thousand southern troops at Memphis, Corinth and Randolph, awaiting orders to attack Cairo.  They are to rendezvous at Columbus, Ky., twenty miles from Cairo for a bold stroke.  It was telegraphed to Col. Prentiss a few days ago that Pillow with a large force was marching to attack him.  Prentiss replied, "Let him come.  We will teach him to dig his trench on the right side.  I am ready."  Cairo is said to be well manned and fortified.
Many millions of dollars are owed by southern men to citizens of the north.  These debts are now repudiated, producing much commercial distress.  At Memphis there is a reign of terror.  Four or five thousand northern men have been driven from the place almost at a moment's warning, many cruelly treated, some put to death.  Memphis, when compared with other southern cities, out Herods Herod in animosity and deadly hate to all loyal to the U. S. Government.

Editor's comments:
Kate and Lucy Dawes were sisters, both unmarried in 1861.  Kate (31) lived with the Cutlers in the Old Stone House and Lucy, a 28 year old teacher,  lived in town (Marietta).

The people in Kentucky were divided.  While many were sympathetic to the southern cause, many others did not want to secede.  Everyone was concerned about continuing good business relationships with neighboring states.  Kentucky's population was small compared to neighboring states and many people worried about being invaded.  In 1861, although Kentucky's governor Magoffin sympathized with the south, the legislature thought it was better to remain part of the union.  Kentucky decided to remain neutral and to prepare to defend itself against all invaders.  For more, see The history, civil, political and military, of the southern rebellion, from its incipient stages to its close by Orville James Victor.

Monday, May 16, 2011

Thursday, May 16

Quite sick.  Sewing circle at Mrs. W. D. Bailey's.  It is to meet in three weeks here.  William came home from Chillicothe.  The Convention at Wheeling has adjourned, having passed resolutions condemning secession.  No state of New Virginia yet.

Editor's comments:
There was a proposal to form a state of the western portion of Virginia and call it "New Virginia".

Sunday, May 15, 2011

Wednesday, May 15, 1861

Marion Robertson went to town today to get medicine etc., I have had a very sore throat.  Lizzie and Kate went up to Mrs. Burgess' to tea to meet Mrs. Deming and the Mrs. Harts.  Government troops under Gen. Butler have taken peaceable possession of Baltimore.

Saturday, May 14, 2011

Tuesday, May 14, 1861

William has gone again to Chillicothe.  The convention that met at Wheeling yesterday is composed of delegates from twenty six counties in northwestern Virginia.  All profess to be Union men.  There is much diversity of opinion as to the proper course to be pursued.  Carlisle of Harrison county advocates a provisional government and seems to have a majority with him.  Jackson of Parkersburg, does not wish to have the state divided, at least at present, talks of an armed neutrality etc., thinks action should be deferred until after the vote of the people is taken on the act of secession on the 23' of this month.  
Carlisle says with the confederate army quartered in the state to over-awe the voters and perhaps swell the secession vote there is no hope of defeating that measure at the polls and once ratified any action adverse to the Confederacy will be treated as treason. He urges prompt action.

Editor's comments:

Political power was concentrated in the eastern part of Virginia by design of the state's constitution.  Virginia's first state constitution adopted in 1776 granted the right to vote only to free white men who owned 25 acres of improved land or 50 acres of unimproved land.  The eastern part of the state had large plantations while the western part of the state had smaller farms, many of which were not owned by the men working them.  From the beginning and for many years, people in western Virginia were frustrated by the lack of political power and demanded reform.

Reform came slowly, however, and when Abraham Lincoln, who was opposed to slavery in any new territories of the United States,  was elected President of the United States in 1860,  Governor Letcher of Virginia called a state convention in Richmond to determine how to react to this "crisis."  While some southern states began to secede from the Union, Virginia was undecided until Fort Sumter surrendered to the Confederate forces and Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers to put down the rebellion.  Three days later, delegates at the Richmond Convention passed an Ordinance of Secession.  A vote by the people of the state was scheduled for May 23, 1861.

Delegates at the Richmond Convention who were from the western section of the state withdrew from the convention and called their own meetings, the First Wheeling Convention, to decide what they would do.  In Julia's journal entry today, she writes about news from the Wheeling Convention.

An excellent resource on the history of the statehood of West Virginia can be found at A State of Convenience: The Creation of West Virginia

Broadside for Union Rally in western Virginia

First Wheeling Convention, May 13-15, 1861

Friday, May 13, 2011

Monday May 13

Lucy returned to town with William this morning.  Kate and Lizzie went up to the graveyard to plant some things on the grave of little Margaret Jane, our sweet baby.
There is some talk of forming a camp at Gravel Pit, near B. C. Bailey's, if troops are sent to this county.  We had our first thunder shower this afternoon.  How strange that civil and religious liberty can only be secured by a baptism of blood.  We know not how long this war may last.   It is on the part of the Government necessary and right and all true and loyal citizens cheerfully rally around the national standard.  And, yet, when I think of the horrors of civil war, I shudder at what must be.

Editor's comments:
  • Lucy Dawes, William's niece, was unmarried and lived in Marietta.  
  • Kate Dawes, Lucy's sister, lived in the Old Stone House with the Cutlers.
  • Lizzie and William Cutler's baby Margaret Jane had died April 18 and was buried in the Riverview Cemetery near where they lived.

Cutler plot, Riverview Cemetery

Thursday, May 12, 2011

Sabbath, May 12

I did not go to meeting.  George Cutter says that the Home Guards organized last night by electing A. S. Bailey captain, G. W. Bailey 1st lieutenant, George Cutter 2nd lieutenant.

Wednesday, May 11, 2011

Saturday May 11, 1861

William went to town and Lizzie Cutler and Lucy Dawes came home with him.  Lucy has just received a letter from her brother Rufus in Wisconsin.  He has raised a company of seventy-eight men and received every vote for captain.  They are called the "Lemonweir Minute Men", and hope soon to be mustered into the United States service.  He says:  "The men are most of them tough and hardy as pine knots.  We hope to get the Zouave drill.  The men expect and earnestly desire to go, and wait impatiently their turn.  I have no rowdies, no drunkards, no off-scourings of society, but the very flower of Juneau, Adams and Badaxe counties.  I shall esteem it an honor worthy a better life than mine to be permitted to lead them in this glorious struggle."  He expresses a great deal of solicitude for his friends upon the border.  He says:  "If the thing is possible there is not a man in my company who would not take as much pleasure in following us to the assistance of Marietta as I would in leading them to the rescue of my nearest and dearest friends on earth."  If called into the active service Rufus will prove himself a true soldier and a true man.
Today's paper, Cincinnati Gazette, says that 800 secessionists were surrounded by a body of United States soldiers in St. Louis and given fifteen minutes to decide whether they would fight or surrender.  The concluded wisely to do the latter and were disarmed and marched prisoners of war to the arsenal.  Quite a number of arms lately sent them from the south were taken.  The mob assailed the soldiers who in turn fired on them.  The government also captured the Winan steam gun, which was being transported from Baltimore to Harpers Ferry, which place is still in the hands of secessionists.  Mr. and Mrs. B. C. Bailey called.

Editor's comments:

Rufus Dawes, 1861

  • Rufus R. Dawes, a nephew of Julia Cutler, and a brother to Lucy, Kate, Jennie and Ephraim Dawes, was in Wisconsin working for his father when Lincoln's call for volunteers went out.  He recruited volunteers and his Lemonweir Minute Men (named after a peaceful river in a familiar valley in Wisconsin) became part of the Sixth Wisconsin Volunteers, later part of the Iron Brigade with the Army of the Potomac.  Union companies of volunteers choose their own names and elected their own captains.  The Zouave drill refers to one of several companies that adopted the name and uniform of well-respected North African inspired fighting units. 

Tuesday, May 10, 2011

Friday, May 10

A poor battered sailor, a native of New York, but just out from the hospital in New Orleans, staid here last night.  He had been thirty eight years a sailor and had visited many lands.  He had lost his right arm and had his leg broken by a fall from the mast of a ship some months ago at New Orleans.  He left because of the unkind treatment he, being a northern man, received.  
Fifty thousand troops of the southern Confederacy are concentrated about Richmond.  Gen. Scott is sending troops to Washington.  A collision seems to be inevitable soon.  Gov. Letcher has appointed twenty different places of rendezvous for Virginian troops.  Parkersburg for Wood and seven adjoining counties. If any number of secession troops to muster there, it will bring the war to our very doors.  As yet there are no adequate arrangements for defence of this part of Ohio if attacked.  
William came home from Chillicothe today almost sick.  ______sent him an insolent dispatch which he did not reply to.  Troubles thicken, God is our refuge.  Oh, that we may be able to say "He is a very present help in time of trouble."  
The city of Wheeling observed Thursday as a day of fasting and prayer in view of the present crisis. Monday a convention meets there to take into consideration forming a new state out of Western Virginia.  The Cincinnati Commercial says that "Wheeling trusts in God and keeps her powder dry."  The gallant Mayor Robert Anderson, late commander of Fort Sumpter, has been made Colonel and takes command of Kentucky troops.  He seems to be a truly good, as well as a truly brave man.  The southern papers have taken great pains to assure the world that nobody was hurt by the guns of Fort Sumpter, a circumstance which seems incredible as two thousand balls and shells were said to have been thrown during the siege, many of which were known to have taken effect from the testimony of a number of different witnesses.  It now appears that several hundred were killed and buried at night.  The troops were sworn to secrecy.  Why?

Editor's comments:

  • Governor Letcher was governor of Virginia from 1860-1864.  He worked to find a compromise so that Virginia would not secede from the Union, but once it seceded, he remained governor of Virginia.
  • Parkersburg, Virginia was a town across the Ohio River from Marietta, Ohio.  Wood County and adjoining counties in the western part of Virginia sided with the Union and did not want to secede.  In 1863, West Virginia became a state.

Monday, May 9, 2011

Thursday, May 9, 1861

Lizzie went to town today with Maggie.  Kate, Annie, little Sarah and I took a ride over a part of the farm.  We went to the house where Smith Henderson lived, the road to which was nearly lined with sweet Williams and other wild flowers. The children were in ecstacies.  Went a long way beyond Pettichord's.  There are several fine view from different points.  Got home a little after ten o'clock, very tired.  After dinner I went up to Mr. Burgess'.  He is still sick with chills.

Many interesting anecdotes of the skill and efficiency of the Massachusetts soldiers are related in the papers.  They found the railroad torn up.  They went to work and put it down again.  A locomotive was broken up.  They immediately repaired it.  The old frigate Constitution was to be sent to New York out of harm's way; sailors and sailing master were found in the ranks.  The work shop at Fortress Monroe had been stopped.  Machinery was needed for mounting guns, a master machinist and a corps of assistants stepped forth from among the volunteers.  Such is the "Universal Yankee" and as brave as he is skillful.

Editor's comments:

  • Lizzie and Maggie were sisters; Lizzie, the wife of William Cutler, lived in the Old Stone House in Constitution, Ohio.  Maggie lived nearby with her mother and step-father, the Burgesses.
  • Kate Dawes, an unmarried niece of Julia Cutler, also lived in the Cutler's Old Stone House.  Annie and little Sarah were the two living children of Lizzie and William Cutler.  In 1861, Annie was 8 and Sarah was 5.
  • Newspapers at the time were delivered with the mail.  Newspapers were highly partisan and sometimes contained inaccuracies.

Sunday, May 8, 2011

May 8, Wednesday

Tennessee and Arkansas have seceded.  The Southern Confederacy have made their declaration of war.  Eastern Virginia is in a ferment of excitement, Union men driven out and their property confiscated.  Many people are leaving the south daily.  Mechanics are not only unpaid but denounced to the vigilance committee.  Debts due northern men are repudiated.  The government is steadily strengthening itself to put down the rebellion.  Nearly 200,000 men will soon be ready for the contest.

Saturday, May 7, 2011

Tuesday May 7, 1861

William went again to Chillicothe.  I received a letter from Clara today full of patriotic feeling.  There is now apparently but one feeling and that is to fight for freedom.  The conduct of Baltimore has excited the just indignation of the whole north.  From every quarter the word is, "not round Baltimore but through it".  Well for her if by a timely repentance and return to loyalty she averts the doom that awaited her.  It appears that the Government is now prepared to act with energy.  It is reported that after the occupation of Baltimore, Harpers Ferry will be retaken, Alexandria occupied and Norfolk subdued after which a march upon Richmond may take place. Gov. Letcher of Virginia is making appeals to Virginia to fight for the Old Dominion.  Everything is done to keep the southern mind in a ferment.  Their newspapers are filled with falsehood and misrepresentations.  They seem to have strange delusions sent upon them taht they may believe a lie.  I believe that  God has taken the matter in hand.  We know not what the end will be but we trust Him to vindicate his own honor and plead the cause of the poor and needy.  Never since the days of the Revolution has the pulpit spoken as now.  Our people have no mis-givings as to the righteousness of our cause.  Although we are a sinful people and cannot claim to merit God's favor, yet we feel that the cause is His, and our army, made up not only of true Christians and true patriots but many also of the "aser sort", is but an instrument in the hands of Him who is our Lord and King.  Having marshalled our armies, let us stand still and see the salvation of God.
An attack on Cairo at the mouth of the Ohio is threatened.  It is said that Gen Pillow with 6000 men is advancing upon it.

Editor's comments:

Friday, May 6, 2011

Monday May 6

Very heavy rain.  William, who was at Marietta today, says that dispatches were received there that Government troops this morning took possession of the "Relay House", nine miles north of Baltimore.  This place, (the Relay House) was considered an important strategic point and was said to have been seized by a party of Secessionists six hundred strong, some days ago.  Government forces were to advance upon Baltimore and take possession of Camden Station.  This afternoon it is reported that the President has issued a proclamation declaring his intention to deal summarily with those traitors who are found in arms.  Today the Government has begun to put down the rebellion -- O may our God of our Fathers fight for us and give us the victory.

Thursday, May 5, 2011

Sabbath, May 5, 1861

Mr. Wakefield preached an excellent practical sermon inculcating that every one should do present duty however lowly or insignificant our position.  God accepts the service.  The Telegraph reports the discovery of a southern plot to cut off the supply of water from Philadelphia, New York and Boston, and then set fire to those cities.  The twenty days in which the President's Proclamation requires traitors to return to their allegiance is now out.  We shall probably soon hear of a collision between the Government troops and the traitors.  God speed the right.

Wednesday, May 4, 2011

Saturday May 4, 1861

Judge Green not so badly injured as was feared.  McBride died instantly.  Mr. Clark was not fired upon, but a Mr. Lewis whose wounds are quite serious.  William returned from Chillicothe.  The Union demonstration in Maryland improves Railroad prospects.  Mr. Wilson is to make a third start for England next Thursday.  William met Mr. Munsell on the cars returning from Kansas through Pana.  Left Daniel well & intending to come to Ohio next fall to settle his business here.  Mr. Walton's school was broken down.  The young men connected with it have enlisted, and the war feeling distracts attention from everything else -- -- a very gloomy prospect for them.  Mr. Gates was also on the cars returning from Columbus where he was set by the council of Marietta to solicit forces for the defence of this section of the state, which, considering the position Virginia has taken and our proximity to the Northwestern Virginia Railroad may be considered peculiarly exposed.  He thinks Gov. Denison is guilty of a great deal of favoritism in his management of the whole thing -- -- evidently hoping to make political capital out of it.  There is a prospect that at least one regiment of troops will be sent to this county.

Editor's notes:
Some of the Cutler's relatives lived in Pana, Illinois.  Clara Cutler Walton was a sister of William & Julia.  Daniel Converse Cutler was a half-brother.  (See the People tab above for Family Group Sheets.)

Tuesday, May 3, 2011

Friday May 3, 1861

Rained all day.  I read "Hopes & Fears".  The papers state that a reaction has taken place in Baltimore.  The Union men have rallied, the Stars & Stripes float from the public buildings & the Maryland Legislation refuses to secede.

Monday, May 2, 2011

Thursday May 2, 1861

Heard this morning that McBride, who was tried some months ago for burning Crams Mill in Marietta, had shot himself.  Afterward reported that he fired upon Hon. Davis Green & Mellvin Clark, Esq., and it is feared mortally wounded Judge Green  --  --  a terrible tragedy.  --  William went again to Chillicothe to meet Wilson, who has returned from New York much depressed.  Kate & Maggie went to Mr. G. W. Bailey's to tea, a small party there, who met expecting to form a sewing circle, but deferred it.

Sunday, May 1, 2011

Wednesday, May 1st

Rather cool.  Kate & Maggie went out to the Tunnel Station and made some purchases.  About sixty men met at Gravel Pit to organize Home Guards.  Owing to some mismanagement (attributed to Bill Scott) did not get officers elected.  T. W. Moore & _____Morris were candidates for Captain.  To meet again on Saturday.  William attended a meeting of "Committee of Safety".  He says there are no adequate means of defence at Marietta as yet.  The companies formed being undrilled & without arms --  -- which leaves the Third Regiment of Artillery without any infantry to co-operate with it.  Two or three thousand men should be sent here -- to repel invasion, or if necessary to sustain Union men in Western Virginia.

Editor's notes:

  • Kate and Maggie were roughly the same age--Kate was 30 and Maggie 26.  Maggie, a sister of Lizzie Cutler, lived nearby with her mother Mrs. Burgess and step-father, Dyer Burgess.
  • Bill Scott is often labeled by Julia as a traitor.  Men who did not whole-heartedly support the Union as well as those who believed it best to compromise with the Southern States, all seemed to be traitors to Julia.