Tuesday, July 31, 2012

Thursday, July 31, 1862

William went out to Amesville.
We received a letter from Pana saying Clara is very sick with typhoid fever.  This is sad news.

Peggy's comments:
Clara Walton is Julia's younger sister.  Julia, who seldom travelled, had taken an extended visit to see her in Pana, Illinois earlier in the year.

Monday, July 30, 2012

Wednesday, July 30, 1862

I called on Miss Emerson at W. D. Bailey's.  William came home from Chillicothe.

Sunday, July 29, 2012

Tuesday, July 29, 1862

Mrs. Hart and Mrs. Deming called this morning and brought us a basket of nice pears and talked over yesterday's alarm.  Mrs. Cains Cole was so much alarmed that she gathered up her valuables and her children and came across the river to her father's.
Lucy spent the afternoon on the hill with Sarah Emerson.  Kate came home and William went to Chillicothe.  Sara Emerson called this evening.

Saturday, July 28, 2012

Monday, July 28, 1862

Lucy came down this morning.  Kate is going to spend the day in town.  William to Marietta.

About four o'clock in the afternoon, Mr. A. S. Bailey called and told us that there was a report that Parkersburg was about to be attacked by nine hundred mounted guerillas.  There was great alarm prevailing and women and children were leaving the place.  The funds from the bank of Parkersburg were removed to this side of the river and finally taken on the train to Marietta.  All the boats were sent to this side of the river.  Mr. Cains Cole's little steamboat came shrieking along up and collected all the guns and men they could and went back to help.  The Mayor of Parkersburg telegraphed to Marietta for help.  Mayor Whittlesay caused the alarm bells to be rung.  The people assembled in crowds at the Court House.  Athens was telegraphed to send men and replied that they were ready and would come on the afternoon train.  In the meantime a company was organized to go to the relief of Parkersburg, another to protect government stores at Marietta.  Scouts were sent out into Virginia and the boats were all secured and the cannon were manned.  Forty guns for the men of Warren to guard the railroad were about to be sent when Mayor Amiss telegraphed that they would be able to take care of themselves, troops having arrived from Clarksburg.
Most of these facts we did not learn until William returned from town.  Emeline M'Clure came up and told us one of their neighbors had just come from Parkersburg where the greatest alarm prevailed.  The pickets had been driven in and the guerillas were said to be within two miles of town.  For two or three hours we heard constant firing at Parkersburg but learned from a horseman that the troops were firing for practice and that the guerillas had retreated instead of attacking the place.  This is really the most serious alarm that we have had here.
Mrs. Bailey & Sarah Emerson called.

Peggy's comments:
The guerillas causing all the excitement were led by Col. John Morgan and his cavalry.  These men would soon be known as "Morgan's Raiders".  Parkersburg, (West) Virginia is about 8 miles south of the Cutler house, across the Ohio River.

Friday, July 27, 2012

Sunday, July 27, 1862

Mr. Curtis preached as usual at half past two o'clock.  William told him if he would select the books he would give him 20 dollars for the Sabbath School Library.  
I was talking with William this morning about the state of the country and he said that the present state of America may result in agitation and revolution in Europe.  The lack of cotton occasions distress which may produce popular outbreaks.
[A section of the journal is smudged out and unreadable.]
Sarah has coughed a little for three days.  We think she is taking whooping cough.

Peggy's comments:
I believe that Julia and her brother William often talked about the state of the country.  As a Congressman from Ohio, William was particularly interested in rumors of agitation in Europe.

In some instances, someone in possession of Julia's journals attempted to obliterate parts of the entries.  One can only speculate about who would have believed that something Julia wrote should be remain private.

Little Sarah is William and Lizzie's 6 year old daughter, Sarah Julia Cutler.

Thursday, July 26, 2012

Saturday, July 26th, 1862

Kate went to Marietta this morning to visit some schoolmates at her mother's.  William has gone to Athens by special invitation, to speak at a war meeting.  The Marietta people sent down Charlie Newton for him to make an address to them to-day, but he has agreed to go to Athens.  He came back on the evening train and found Mr. Morris here waiting for him to look at the cattle & Mr. Scott the Bible Agent was here to tea.  I wrote to Martha A. Carter and enclosed 20 dollars.

Peggy's comments:
Kate Dawes was Julia's 32-year-old niece who lived with the Cutler's.  She was about the same age as Lizzie Cutler, William's wife.

Martha A. Carter was also a niece of Julia's.  Her mother was Julia's half-sister, Nancy Cutler Carter.

Wednesday, July 25, 2012

Friday, July 25, 1862

I spent most of the day in the garret assorting newspapers and putting them away -- a laborious undertaking.  Lizzie Poage and her friends Lizzie Andrews and Anna Dana took dinner here.  William went to Belpre and spoke at the public meeting held at Center Grove.  Sarah came down and brought the Marietta Registers containing William's speech before the Military Meeting last Saturday.

Tuesday, July 24, 2012

Thursday, July 24, 1862

Annie is nine years old today.  She has taken cold and is quite unwell.  Kate went down to Mrs. McClure's this morning.  The first meeting of the Warren picnic circle was held there today.  Lizzie went in the afternoon.  The object is to do what we can for the comfort of the soldiers.

Peggy's comments:
Annie Cutler is a daughter of Julia's brother William.  William and Lizzie had many children but most of them died in infancy.

My first reaction to forming a "picnic circle" was that it seemed a bit frivolous.  But it was in fact another gathering of women to make and assemble things that would be helpful to the soldiers.

Monday, July 23, 2012

Wednesday, July 23, 1862

Rained during the forenoon.  I made blackberry wine.  William went to Belpre to meet Mr. Waddle, civil engineer, about a railroad bridge across the Ohio River.  Kate and little Sarah went to Belpre on the train to bring home Annie.

Sunday, July 22, 2012

Tuesday, July 22, 1862

Miss Mary Nye went to Belpre this morning taking Annie with her, to stay a couple of days at Mr. Dana's.  Kate, Lizzie and little Sarah spent the day in Harmar at Mrs. Newton's.  
The rebel Morgan has retreated to Tennessee pursed by Gen. Smith.  His raid into Kentucky has only resulted in the loss of several of his guerrillas, and the stealing of some fine horses from Union men.  Gen. Pope has been issuing some stirring orders in regard to subsisting his men on the rebels, &c.  He now has command of Fremont's department in Virginia.

Saturday, July 21, 2012

Monday, July 21, 1862

William has been writing out his Saturday's speech which I spent the evening copying for the press.  Lucy who came on the evening train helped me.  Miss Mary C. Nye and little Bessie Lovell (whose parents are in Nashville, Tenn.) are here spending the night.

Friday, July 20, 2012

Sabbath, July 20, 1862

I had two new Sunday School scholars, Seth Bailey and Thomas Hudson.  My class has heretofore consisted of Alonzo McClure, James Bailey, Wallace Scott and Arthur Hollister.

Thursday, July 19, 2012

Saturday, July 19, 1862

William went to Marietta and attended the military meeting and made them a speech.  Mr. Stimson, the Editor of the Register requested a copy of it for his next paper.  As it was extemporaneous William will have to write it out.  Kate and I have been filing away his letters and papers today.  There are a great many of them.  I find a great many thanking him for the speech he made in Congress, April 23rd.  Many of them are highly complimentary.
Annie is beginning to cough.  We are apprehensive that it may be whooping cough.
The rebels have invaded Indiana and captured hospital stores at Newburgh.
Mr. Morris of Fairfield & Mr. James Morris of Barlow came to look at cattle which they wish to buy.  They stayed to dinner.

Peggy's comments:
I hadn't really thought about it, but I assume that many speeches were "extemporaneous" and were then "written" and published in the newspaper.  What people read was not exactly what people had heard!

The speech William made in Congress on April 23 was entitled:  SLAVERY--A PUBLIC ENEMY, AND OUGHT THEREFORE TO BE DESTROYED; A NUISANCE THAT MUST BE ABATED.  Read more about it in Julia's journal entry of April 6, 1862.

Wednesday, July 18, 2012

Friday, July 18, 1862

Still haying.  William arrived at home this evening.  He came by way of the Baltimore and Ohio & N. W. Virginia R. R.     Lucy came to spend the night.

Tuesday, July 17, 2012

Thursday, July 17, 1862

Cloudy with some rain.  Maggie here.  Emeline called.  William D. McClure is promoted to be brigade train Master.  This evening the train brought us an iron vase for Kate's garden and a handsome hat stand purchased by Lizzie and Lucy in Cincinnati of J. S. Walton.  
Morgan's raid in Kentucky continues.

Monday, July 16, 2012

Wednesday, July 16, 1862

Mrs. Dawes returned to Marietta this morning.  Lucy dined at Mr. Burgess' and Kate took tea at A. S. Bailey's.  Lucy went to town on evening train.  News of the safe arrival of Gen. Curtis and his command 14,000 strong at Helena on the Mississippi.

Peggy's comments:

More about General Curtis and Helena here.

Sunday, July 15, 2012

Tuesday, July 15, 1862

We began to cut grass yesterday and have eight hands at it.  They have a good deal down.  Hard shower in the afternoon.  The guerillas under Morgan are active in Kentucky, threatening Louisville and Cincinnati not as yet with armed masses but with boastful words.  Emeline and Alonzo McClure were here this evening.  Emeline left me her brother Andrew's letter giving an interesting account of the battle of Sugar Creek or as it is more generally called, Pea Ridge.

Peggy's comments:
John Hunt Morgan did not initially favor secession.  He joined the Confederate States Army  in September of 1861 and fought at the battle of Shiloh.  On July 4, 1862, he took 900 men on a raid into Kentucky, causing havoc and unsettling federal troops.  He captured troops and horses and furthermore destroyed supplies.  Here's a description of the beginning of the raid.

And here is an account in the NY Times, July 15, 1862:

Morgan's Raid In Kentucky.
CINCINNATI, Monday, July 14. The Gazette special, dated Lexington, says that Gen. WARD assumed command last night. The city is under martial law. No man is to appear without a musket, under penalty of being shot down. Gen. WARD's proclamation orders all the citizens of Fayette County to prepare forthwith for military duty. The Commercial special, dated Frankfort, says that MORGAN, with less than 10,000 men, crossed the Kentucky River this morning, and moved north to Versailles, where now is a force sufficient for the protection of Frankfort and Lexington. CINCINNATI, Monday, July 14. Since Saturday night the city has been greatly excited. A thousand rumors are afloat. Meetings have been held, and citizens in large numbers have volunteered for special service at Lexington. Over one hundred of the city police went, fully armed. Many citizens are yet anxious to go, but their services will not be accepted until further news from MORGAN is had.
More information about the battle of Pea Ridge, Arkansas, which took place in March.

Saturday, July 14, 2012

Monday, July 14, 1862

Sister Sarah still here.  Mrs. Burgess and Maggie came down to tea.  Lizzie and Lucy came on the evening train.

Friday, July 13, 2012

Sabbath, July 13, 1862

Went to meeting.  Mr. Curtis preached.  
Mr. James Harvey was seriously hurt by a fall from a load of wheat last week.  His head was fractured and a severe gash in the heel.
The guerillas are becoming bold about Parkersburg.  They lately captured a Union man and took him off.  A guard is constantly stationed to prevent mischief.

Thursday, July 12, 2012

Saturday, July 12, 1862

Nancy went in the afternoon to the Misses Lewis to see her sister.  Mrs. Julia S. Bailey's girl came and got two baskets of currants.
Mrs. Dawes came on the evening train.  Lizzie sent on the train an oilcloth for the entry and a whatnot.
Gen. Hunter's letter in answer to inquiries of Wickliffe of Kentucky about the enlistment of contrabands is most excellent, both witty and sound.  

Peggy's comments:
Here is General Hunter's excellent letter.

Wednesday, July 11, 2012

Friday, July 11, 1862

Sarah went home to be at the female prayer meeting which is always at her house.  The clouds have cleared away and the sun shone out hot.  It began to appear smoky which increased until the atmosphere seemed to hang like a pall over the earth obscuring objects usually distinctly seen, and darkening the brightness of the sun so that it cast no shadow.  I cannot think what causes it at this season of the year.  We often have smoke in the atmosphere in the spring when people are burning brush, also in the autumn when we have Indian summer, but never at harvest time.
I have just read the letters of Gen. Sherman and Lieut. Gov. Stanton of Ohio about the battle of Shiloh and think the General worsted in the contest with the Governor.

Peggy's comments:
Here is a link with the letter General Sherman wrote to give his account of what happened at Shiloh; it is quite amazing to me that this sort of conversation took place in newspapers!

Tuesday, July 10, 2012

Thursday, July 10, 1862

Lucy and Lizzie started to Cincinnati.  It rained all day which is better for railroad travelers than heat and dust.
Our earliest pears are beginning to ripen and are very good.  Small fruits such as strawberries, currants, raspberries, gooseberries, cherries and blackberries are very abundant this year.

Monday, July 9, 2012

Wednesday, July 9, 1862

Mrs. Dawes came with Lizzie yesterday.  Kate went to town today taking Annie with her.  She will purchase articles to send in a box to Ephraim by Mr. Morrison.  Mrs. W. D. Bailey came in hastily this afternoon asking if we had seen her little Charlie.  She had left him asleep on the lounge and gone into the garden to pick currants, leaving him alone in the house.  When she came in he was gone.  She had searched the premises but did not find him.  She was very much alarmed.  Mrs. Dawes, Nancy and I went to help search.  At last I found a little track in a moist place in the road.  It was going up.  Mrs. Bailey and I found him at George W. Bailey's.  
Letters from Rufus. Gov. Solomon of Wisconsin has telegraphed to him his appointment as Major.  Rufus has been a week sick with bilious fever but is better now.

Sunday, July 8, 2012

Tuesday, July 8, 1862

Lucy and Lizzie went to Marietta.  Lucy came down last night with eight letters just received from Ephraim.  He is at Moscow now but has been at Lagrange.  Gen. Denver, the brigade commander publicly complimented the 53rd for their conduct in a late skirmish.
There is apprehension of trouble from England.  The tone of the London Times which William sends us, is very unfriendly.  Everything that can be said to the disadvantage of the government of the United States and of the northern man is said.  Gen. Butler's order, unfortunately worded, has been made the occasion of a great deal of animadversion.  The President by the advice of the Governors of loyal states calls for 300,000 more volunteers, to speedily put down the rebellion, and no doubt, to be ready for England's hostile demonstrations.

Peggy's comments:
I had to look up the word "animadversion" which means adverse criticism or censorious remarks.    Julia refers to General Butler's Order Number 28 which became known as the "Woman Order".  A wonderful article about the ramifications of this order is here.   General Butler was commander of the occupying forces in New Orleans where the population was very definitely pro-Confederacy and uncooperative with the Union rule.  Women were disrespectfully spitting on Union troops so a very irritated General Butler issued an order stating:

New Orleans, May 15, 1862.
As the officers and soldiers of the United States have been subject to repeated insults from the women (calling themselves ladies) of New Orleans in return for the most scrupulous non-interference and courtesy on our part, it is ordered that hereafter when any female shall by word, gesture, or movement insult or show contempt for any officer or soldier of the United States she shall be regarded and held liable to be treated as a woman of the town plying her avocation.
By command of Major-General Butler

In other words, disrespectful women were to be considered as reprehensible as prostitutes.  This certainly offended the southerners and there were even repercussions from London.  Read more about it here in a NY Times Opinionator column.

Here is Lincoln's call for more troops:

NEW YORK, June 30, 1862.
The capture of New Orleans, Norfolk, and Corinth by the national forces has enabled the insurgents to concentrate a large force at and about Richmond, which place we must take with the least possible delay; in fact, there will soon be no formidable insurgent force except at Richmond. With so large an army there, the enemy can threaten us on the Potomac and elsewhere. Until we have re-established the national authority, all these places must be held, and we must keep a respectable force in front of WASHINGTON. But this, from the diminished strength of our army by sickness and casualties, renders an addition to it necessary in order to close the struggle which has been prosecuted for the last three months with energy and success. Rather than hazard the misapprehension of our military condition and of groundless alarm by a call for troops by proclamation, I have deemed it best to address you in this form. To accomplish the object stated we require without delay 150,000 men, including those recently called for by the Secretary of War. Thus reinforced our gallant army will be enabled to realize the hopes and expectations of the government and the people.

And here is a private letter to the governors from Lincoln regarding the need for more troops:

(Private and Confidential.)
WAR DEPARTMENT, July 3, 1862.10.30 A.M.
GOVERNOR WASHBURN, Maine [and other governors] I should not want the half of 300,000 new troops if I could have them now. If I had 50,000 additional troops here now, I believe I could substantially close the war in two weeks. But time is everything, and if I get 50,000 new men in a month, I shall have lost 20,000 old ones during the same month, having gained only 30,000, with the difference between old and new troops still against me. The quicker you send, the fewer you will have to send. Time is everything. Please act in view of this. The enemy having given up Corinth, it is not wonderful that he is thereby enabled to check us for a time at Richmond.
Yours truly,

Saturday, July 7, 2012

Monday, July 7, 1862

Lucy went back to town and took some cherries.  
Today's paper says that McClellan's army had seven days fighting with but little food or rest.  Some say there was brilliant generalship and splendid fighting on our side and altho the losses were heavy those of the enemy were greater.  On Tuesday July 1st the seventh day of the battle we claim and the rebels admit that we were victorious.  The rebel General, Stonewall Jackson who has been very troublesome and active doing us great injury is among the killed; also Gen. Barnwell Rhett of South Carolina.  He was one of the original traitors and did all in his power to get up the rebellion.  They troubled the peace of the country.  It is well they can do so no more.  We lose General McCall, severely wounded and a prisoner and Gen. Reynolds, a prisoner.  What a field of blood must that be where this terrific struggle took place.  The loss on both sides will probably never be truly known and estimates vary much.  Our loss is estimated at from 10,000 to 25,000; the rebels from 15,000 to 75,000.  No doubt it is heavy on both sides.  This is to us the hour of darkness.  The Democrats under the lead of Vallandigham are brewing mischief.  There is danger that England and France may interfere being glad of a pretext to destroy the best and freest government in the world.  Oh that God would deliver us from these horrors.  
William writes that there is great solicitude in Washington for the fate of McClellan's army.  He says he thinks there is great need of "Intervention", not of England, but of God Almighty.

Peggy's comments:
There were indeed heavy losses on both sides in the Seven Days Battles.
One source claims that  91,000 Union troops and 95,000 Confederate troops engaged in the battles.  Casualties were 15,849 Union and  20,614 Confederates.  Casualty figures usually contained those wounded as well as those killed.

Reports from the battlefield obviously contained errors.  Despite what Julia read in newspaper accounts, Confederate Generals Stonewall Jackson and Barnwell Rhett were not killed.   Union General George McCall was taken prisoner and was imprisoned in Libby Prison, Richmond, Virginia.  He was exchanged in August, but due to ill health, he went on sick leave until he resigned from the army.  Union General John Fulton Reynolds was captured and later exchanged in August whereupon he reentered service.  He served another year and died at Gettysburg.

Friday, July 6, 2012

Sabbath, July 6, 1862

A very warm day.  If, as has too often been the case during this war, the holy Sabbath should be made a day of strife and blood, how terrible will be the suffering.  God pity the sick and wounded and give his angels charge concerning them!
Mr. Curtis preached in the afternoon, about 75 persons present -- quite a number from Virginia.  

Thursday, July 5, 2012

Saturday, July 5, 1862

A quiet but anxious day.  Lucy came down in the evening to stay until Monday.  No additional news.  We do not think that Rufus was in the fight, but may be in the reinforcements McDowell sent McClellan and may at any moment be called to the struggle.  He is in the hand of God & He alone can keep him.  
Mr. Sturling who struck Mr. D. B. Calder & seriously injured him was tried today before S. G. Hollister & acquitted.  Mr. Calder's better but not able to be moved home.  Sturling was acquitted on the ground that Calder used threatening language, and entered Sturling's house after he was forbidden and forcibly lead the boy out. 

Peggy's comments:
The uncertainty of the families at home is shown in this journal entry.  Rufus was safely camped at Fredericksburg, but the Cutlers had no way of being sure that he wasn't marching to battle.

On June 26, Julia wrote about the attack of Mr. Sturling on Mr. Calder.

Wednesday, July 4, 2012

Friday, July 4, 1862

The late news from McClellan and the uncertainty which hangs over the result of last week's fight makes loyal hearts sad.  Oh!  what an anniversary is this of Independence Day.  Probably a million of Americans in arms fighting for or against the government.  Thousands clad in sable for those dear ones who will return no more and thousands more with anxious dread awaiting tidings from the battlefield.  How dreadful is the scourge of war!  But more dreadful still is that degradation which will yield the right and truth rather than fight for it.  It must surely have been for times like these, that the apostle meant this injunction to 'pray always' and to "pray without ceasing".  For ourselves that our hearts may be right with God, for our friends in peril that may be kept from evil, for the oppressed that God will plead their cause and maintain their right, for our Government that it may be established in righteousness; that our enemies at home may be discomfitted and subdued; and those abroad may be held back by God's almighty hand, that our Country though sorely chastened may not be destroyed, that the authority of God may be every where acknowledged, and "peace return again to our borders and prosperity to our palaces."
Rufus is twenty four years old today.  God bless and keep him.
George finished harvesting the wheat.  Mr. and Mrs. W. D. Bailey and the children came down and took tea with us under the trees in the garden after which Lizzie played and sang some patriotic songs, when Mr. Bailey let off some rockets and other fire works much to the amusement of the children.

Peggy's comments:
Julia's nephew, Rufus R. Dawes, was a Major in the 6th Wisconsin with the Army of the Potomac under General Pope.  At this time, he was camped near Fredericksburg, Maryland.  On July 10 he wrote:

I am not near Richmond, nor likely to be.  General Pope is charged with the same old duty of guarding Washington.  So unless the rebels move on Washington, our future presents a peaceful aspect.

Rufus, who mustered into service May 2, 1861, had only been engaged in minor skirmishes up to this point.  In late August 1862,  however, his "peaceful aspect" would end and he would participate in many fierce battles.

Rufus R. Dawes, 1862

Tuesday, July 3, 2012

Thursday, July 3, 1862

Began to cut wheat on the Bottom.  Seven hands at it.  George cradles two at work with sickles where the wheat is down, the others rake and bind.  
We were invited with Rhoda to Mr. Burgess' to dinner.  The children and all went.  
Six days fight at Richmond, terrible slaughter.  Our loss from 10 to 20,000.  McClellan at Malvern Hill on James River under cover of gunboats.  He is being reinforced by Shield's division and M'Dowell's.
Rhoda and Dewey went home on the cars.

Peggy's comments:
What was known as the Seven Days' Battles had their climax on July 1 at Malvern Hill, Virginia.  Lee mistakenly thought that Confederate General Armistead was making headway and urged further assault to try to dislodge McClellan.  The result was heavy losses on both sides.  McClellan retreated, unable to capture Richmond.  Here is an account of the battles as printed in Harper's Weekly, July 19, 1862.  And a summary of the battles with the perspective of time.

And a collection of telegrams sent by General George B. McClellan.

And writings of Abraham Lincoln, including telegraph messages to George McClellan.

Monday, July 2, 2012

Wednesday, July 2, 1862

Still cloudy.  Mrs. W. D. Bailey invited Kate, Lucy and the children there to tea.  Rhoda went with them.  Lucy and Betty Gates went home on the cars.

Sunday, July 1, 2012

Tuesday, July 1, 1862

Lizzie has put up a dozen cans of currants today and made about 30 pounds of cherries into sweet pickles.
The report of fighting near Richmond is confirmed.  Gen. McClellan has withdrawn his forces from the Chickahominy with his artillery and stores.  The supply fleet has left the York and gone to James River which will hereafter be the base of operations.  The war department will not permit any news to be telegraphed but we suppose there is still fighting.  God grant there may not be disaster.  
Mrs. Rhoda, M. S. Cutler (wife of Rev. Temple Cutler, Chaplain to the Ninth Maine) came down to visit us this evening.  She had with her Dewey Follett her nephew four years old.  Cloudy.