Sunday, July 31, 2011

Wednesday July 31

Lucy came down this morning to spend the day.  Kate went up and brought Maggie down.  Ephe and Mr. Chatfield (whose strength has improved since he came) went to Marietta this morning.  the 18" Regiment passed on their way to Camp Putnam, where they are to be mustered out of service.  The boat looked gay with their banners but the men themselves looked weary and oppressed by the heat, crowded as they were on open barges under a scorching sun.
First green corn for dinner today.

Peggy's comments:
I'm glad to read that Maggie is well enough to come for a visit.  And I'm reminded of the pleasures of the first corn.

Saturday, July 30, 2011

Tuesday July 30

The Gazette says the Sixth Regiment of Wisconsin troops passed through Chicago on the evening of the 28" en route to Harrisburg, Pa., where they are to receive their arms.  Rufus' company is in this regiment and we hope that he will get a furlough to visit us as he has proposed to do.

Peggy's comments:
Rufus R. Dawes was Julia's nephew.  They were heading toward Washington to join the Army of the Potomac.
Rufus R. Dawes

Friday, July 29, 2011

Monday July 29

I made blackberry wine.
Capt. Pierce's men left on a special train this morning.  They waved and cheered as they passed.  About noon the fire Zouaves of Marietta, Capt. Shaw, were distributed.  Ephe went to Camp Cole to invite that squad to dinner.  He found but one man and he could not leave.  Kate spent the afternoon with Maggie.  Later accounts put a better face on the Manassas affair.  Loss on our side less than at first supposed, gallantry of our troops well established.  Much dissatisfaction is felt with Gen. Patterson for not preventing Gen. Johnston reinforcing Bouregard at Manassas.  Gen. Banks supersedes Patterson.

Peggy's Comments:
Frustration and second-guessing was beginning to happen about the conduct and decision-making of Union generals.  Here are some eye-witness accounts and here's a summary of a Congressional report regarding the Battle at Manassas.

Thursday, July 28, 2011

Sabbath July 28

God grant that War may cease in the land for this holy day at least.  A very heavy thunderstorm this morning.  After it Lizzie and I went to meeting.  Bennet C. Bailey read the sermon from the text "The Spirit and the Bride say, Come".  Mr. Heath came up to bring home the plates in which Lizzie sent pies and cakes yesterday, and to tell us goodbye and to thank us in the name of this squad for our kindness.  They expect to go in the morning.  We do not know who are to take their places.  I hope William will get home this week.  Congress talks of adjourning, but still holds on.

Wednesday, July 27, 2011

Saturday July 27

It is said that a dispatch from Rosecrans reached Marietta this morning stating that Gen. Cox was occupying Charleston.  I hope it is true.  Later, today's Gazette says Wise retreated without giving battle.   His conduct in the Kanawha Valley has been atrocious, not calculated to win friends to secession but to strengthen union feeling.  The traitors are now driven back from Western Virginia but I fear they will not stay whipped.  They have little cause to glory in the Manassas fight.  In a position they had been fortifying for weeks, their troops numbering three to one of ours, fighting behind their defences, masked batteries and rifle pits with cavalry &c. were boldly attacked by our troops & driven back two miles.  Our troops always in a fair fight and open field proving their superiority, performing deeds of wondrous valor under circumstances almost hopeless.  No men could excell Ellsworth's Zouaves in daring.  So of the 69" N. Y. and many other regiments, our own Ohio boys did good service, losing 35 killed and wounded in the Ohio 2" and 146 missing, probably prisoners, some perhaps dead.  No doubt the rebel loss has been too severe to leave much room for rejoicing.  Gen. Bartow of Georgia and Gen. Bee of S. Carolina are killed.  The Lynchburg regiments were cut to pieces.  Wade Hampton's South Carolina regiment and two others from that State and Bartow's fine regiment of Georgians nearly annihilated.  The Georgia, Oglethrop L. F. regiments suffered severely, a large number of officers killed.  Of our troops, the New York 69" (Irish) the fire Zouaves N. Y. & 71
 N. Y. suffered severely.  the 1", 2" & 3" Connecticut, 1s Regulars composed of the 2", 3" and 8" Companies, 250 Marines and the 8" and 14" N. Y. Militia, 1" & 2" Rhode Island 2" New Hampshire, 5" Massachusetts, 1s Minnesota 1s & 2s Michigan, 11", 12", 38" N. York, 2", 4" & 5" Maine and 2" Vermont, 1" & 2" Ohio &c. were engaged in this bloody battle.  How many lives were actually lost on either side we shall never know.  Our own loss has been estimated so variously that we can only guess the truth.  The statements vary from 5000 to 300.  I have no doubt the loss was large.  God forgive us that we have seemed to forget the He is King, that we have failed to honor him and obey his laws.  I have felt like crying out as Joshua did after the defeat at Ai "O Lord, what shall I say, when Israel turneth their backs before their enemies!"  I am more afraid of God's displeasure than of all the hosts of the South.

Peggy's comments:
The Battle at Manassas Junction/Bull Run was clearly a loss for the Union.  Casualty numbers vary with the source, but it appears that on the Union side, 460 were killed, 1,124 wounded, and 1,312 captured or missing.  For the South, 387 killed, 1,582 wounded, and 13 captured or missing.

Tuesday, July 26, 2011

Friday July 26

Mr. Burgess and William Erwin here to dinner.  
This morning the Ohio 19" regiment passed up returning from the War.  This regiment under Col. Beattie was at the Rich Mountain fight and acted admirably, strictly obeying orders.  They poured into the enemy two well directed volleys doing great execution.  Some of the captured rebels said "They did not much mind the charge of the Indianians but they could not stand before the regular troops", referring to the Ohio 19" who from the steadiness and precision with which they fired were mistaken for a corps of the regular army.
The Washington county regiment it is believed will be raised.  Eight companies have already signified a wish to belong to it.  Esq. Moore from the Tunnel is getting up a company.  Col. Barnett's Cleveland Artillery are now at Camp Chase, Columbus.  They will reenlist for the war.
From all the accounts of both parties I am convinced that there was no lack of bravery in our soldiers, at Manassas.  The charges they made were most brilliant, scarcely ever surpassed.  Thank God, our countrymen are not cowards. When sure they are right, they go ahead.  The effect upon the public mind of the retreat of our men has been to stir up the military ardor to the highest pitch.  Lt. Gen. Scott will have as many men as he wants.

Monday, July 25, 2011

Thursday July 25

A letter from William speaks of the battle of Bulls Run on Saturday.  Secretary Cameron had given him a pass into Virginia to see the fight, but he observes in a letter subsequent that he was too busy to go though many of the members went.  I am sorry to see that Sec. Cameron lost a brother in the fight at Manassas.  Colonel Cameron.  His body has not been found.  Every heart is sad over the catastrophe, sorry for the dead and wounded, sorry for the mourner, sorry that God's holy day was thus desecrated, sorry for the dishonor of our troops in their head-long fight.  God permits us to be thus humbled that we may realize more fully our dependence on Him and our own unworthiness.  Painful particulars are today published.
A storm is brewing on the Great Kanawha.  Gov. Wise is being largely reinforced and a battle near Charleston may soon be expected.  A number of our regiments and those of Indiana are now going home.  I trust, however, that Gen'ls Cox & Rosecrans will receive such reinforcements as will enable them to keep the enemy at bay.  Gen. M'Clellan has gone to Washington.  May God make him as successful there as he has been in western Virginia.  The Ohio 14" under Col. Steadman has now gone home, their time being out.  This regiment from the north west corner of the state has done good service and won laurels for itself.  They bore the brunt of the battle at Carricks Ford on Cheat river.  It is said that two thirds of all our regiments will re-inlist.  Col Norton has been released on parole.  He is severely wounded, but is now among friends.
We feel anxious to hear more from Charlestown.  A defeat of our forces there would probably precipitate the enemy upon Parkersburg and perhaps upon the Ohio border.  
Ephe got home from Amesville today.  Spent last night in Marietta.  He says William has procured the acceptance of a Washington Co. regiment if they can be raised in fifteen days.  
A letter from Annie Dean says the Mr. & Mrs. Munsell have gone back to Illinois and will go in the fall to Kansas where he has bought a small farm near Baldwin City.

Peggy's comments:
It amazes me that passes were issued by the Secretary of War so that Congressmen could view a battle!  Citizens did, however, used to view Revolutionary War battles.

The upcoming battle in the Kanawha valley in Virginia was worrisome to Julia.  Gov. Wise had been the governor of Virginia, had resigned when Virginia seceded and then joined the Confederate Army as a General.

Annie Dean was Julia's niece (the daughter of Julia's half-sister Mary Cutler).  Mrs. Munsell, also a niece, was Mary, Annie's sister.

Sunday, July 24, 2011

Wednesday July 24

This is little Annie's birthday, eight years old, just the age my Father was at the beginning of the Revolutionary War.  He retained to the day of his death a vivid recollection of many things connected with those stirring events.  So probably will she of these times of strife and trouble.  
I spent most of the day with Maggie.  Mr. Heath, the sergeant at Camp Cole, came up to see Mr. Chatfield, and staid to dinner.  Eliza Coons & Fanny Wicks were also here.
Today's papers put a better face on the Manassas fight.  Our troops fought bravely and well, until the panic began, occasioned by a rush of the teamsters, civilians &c. and by an unexpected attack of rebel cavalry.  Our loss, killed outright is less than first stated.  It is thought not to exceed 600.  The rebels themselves suffered as severely as we, perhaps more so.  Dispatches from Richmond say 2000 killed.  It was one of the severest battles ever fought in America.  The whole country is aroused.  Already reinforcements are on the way to Washington.  Gen. McClellan is summoned to the Capitol to take command of the Grand Army.
Kate received a letter from Rufus full of ardent patriotism.  He says he knows he has the love and confidence of his men.  They are resolved to stand by each other.  Each one of them would die for him as he would cheerfully for them.  They will see servie soon as the government will order forward all the regiments already equipped immediately, to repair the disastrous retreat from Manassas.

Peggy's comments:
Sarah & Annie Cutler
Little Annie was Julia's niece, the daughter of William & Lizzie Cutler.  Her grandfather, Ephraim Cutler, (Julia's father), was born in Connecticut and raised by his grandfather.  Julia and her brother William later collected the journals and letters of Ephraim Cutler which were published in 1890

Ephraim Cutler

I am most interested in the political and social history of the Civil War and not so keen on learning a great deal about the battles.  Much has been written about the battles, however, and is easily discovered by a google search.  Here is a brief synopsis of the Battle of Bull Run (as the Union referred to it or the Battle at Manassas Junction as the Confederates refer to it).  The number of Union troops killed, wounded or missing was 2,950 and the number of Southern troops was estimated to be 1,750-2,000.  The following quote is from the National Park Service:
General Irvin McDowell's army of 35,000 Union troops marched from Washington, D.C. toward the railroad junction at Manassas. Here the Orange & Alexandria Railroad met the Manassas Gap Railroad, which led west to the Shenandoah Valley. Twenty-two thousand Southern soldiers under the command of General Pierre G.T. Beauregard guarded the area, waiting for an attack. On July 21, 1861, the two armies met on the fields overlooking a small stream named Bull Run. Meanwhile, on July 20th and 21st, 10,000 additional Southern troops arrived via the Manassas Gap Railroad. After hours of battle, the newly arrived southern units forced the exhausted and discouraged Union soldiers to withdraw back to Washington, D.C.

Rufus Dawes, Julia's nephew, had been working for his father in Wisconsin and had organized a company of troops, who then elected him Captain.  This company was officially mustered into the service of the United States on July 16.  Rufus' company proceeded towards Washington by way of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.
Rufus R. Dawes, 1861

Saturday, July 23, 2011

Tuesday July 23

Eph. has gone to Amesville to look after matters there.  The telegraphic reports from M'Dowell's column at Manassas Junction today are very disheartening.  We hope that they are not true.  It is said that our troops are driven back in great disorder and their artillery fallen into the hands of the rebels.  The fire Zouaves of New York cut to pieces, Col. Farnham and Lt. Col. killed.  Also 69' Regiment from New York suffered greatly.  Though cast down, I am not dismayed.  I still believe God is for us.   He it is that shall tread down our enemies.  He is teaching us not to put our trust in an arm of flesh, but to look upward to the hills whence our help cometh.  It cannot be that God by his almighty power will uphold the slave power, that "sum of all villainies".  His truth and honor it seems to me are engaged to save "the right".  "Though he slay me yet will I trust in Him".
A letter from Clara.  How my heart aches for her.  She mourns for her darling Lucy as mothers only mourn, yet with Christian submission.  There are four letters from William today.  He longs to be at home again.
Prof. E. B. Andrews came here to tea.  We all attended his lecture on the military movements of Gen. M'Clellan at Rich Mountain, Laurel Hill &c., and were very much interested, 40 or so soldiers were present, house well filled.
The train loads of returned soldiers passed up during the evening, said to be the Ohio 15" Col. G. W. Andrews.  Their time is out.

Peggy's comments:
Throughout history, various groups have believed God was on their side in war.  Julia seems to be struggling with the news of the Union army's losses at Bull Run and her conviction that the God she believed in could not possibly be on the side of slavery.  In writing that slavery is "the sum of all villainies", Julia quotes the founder of the Methodist Church, Englishman John Wesley.  Wesley had traveled to the colony of Georgia in 1735 to bring Christianity to the Indians.  He was not very successful in that pursuit, but while in Georgia he witnessed brutality to slaves.  In 1775, he published his reasoned discussion "Thoughts on Slavery"  and continued to write and speak against slavery all of his life.  His last letter was to John Wilberforce a member of Parliament, in which he refers to slavery as "execrable villainy which is the scandal of religion, of England, and of human nature."    In 1807, England banned slave trade.  Wesley's tracts were widely read and quoted.

Clara is Julia's younger sister whose only daughter Lucy had died the previous month at the age of 4.  William, Julia's brother, is in D.C. serving in Congress.

The soldiers whose "time is out" were some of the early volunteers who signed up for three months of service.

Friday, July 22, 2011

Monday July 22

Exciting rumors are afloat today about the action at Manassas Junction.  A heavy loss of life but nothing very positive.  Our troops are said to have driven the rebels two miles and have taken their batteries, so far, but with a loss of 3000 killed and wounded.  The loss of the enemy unknown but thought to be severe.  We can only pray that "God himself will be with us for our Captain" and fight for us and save us.
Ephe came down from town this morning bringing with him Mr. Chatfield a member of the Michigan Coldwater Artillery, who has been very sick in hospital with typhoid fever, but is now slowly recovering.  We hope that a week in the country will benefit him.  He spent last week at Mrs. Dawes'.  Lucy went home this morning having spent last night with Maggie.  She & Kate went this morning to the graveyard to see the stone lately put up at Henry M. Dawes' grave, at Lucy's expense.

Peggy's comments:
Julia's use of the word "exciting" shows how word meanings change over the years.  While we now think of exciting news or excitement as something positive, 150 years ago the word was generally used to mean chaotic or causing mental or emotional agitation.

News travelled by telegraph dispatch and by newspaper but was not instantaneous.  Early reports were frequently incorrect.  The battle at Manassas Junction (Bull Run) occurred the day before this journal entry on July 21 so news was just beginning to reach Julia.

Henry M. Dawes was Julia's nephew, the older brother of Kate, Lucy, Jane, Rufus, and Ephe Dawes.  A lawyer in Marietta, Henry became ill and died the previous August at the age of 28.
Henry Manasseh Dawes

Thursday, July 21, 2011

Sabbath July 21

Mr. Andrews preached an excellent sermon today to a good congregation.   A number of soldiers present.  He proposes to give a lecture or talk on Tuesday evening about the recent war movements at Rich Mountain, Laurel Hill, Cheat River &c.

Peggy's comments:
I've been wondering about Mr. E. B. Andrews who sometimes gives sermons but also gives lectures.  He was Professor Ebenezer Baldwin Andrews who was born in Connecticut in 1821.  He was a student at Marietta College and later was a Professor of Geology there.  He was also a minister and the still-standing First Presbyterian Church in Marietta has a stained glass window dedicated to him because he drew up the paper that caused the church to organize in 1865.  As of July 21, 1861, Andrews was still teaching and preaching in Marietta but he would soon join the Ohio 36th Volunteer Infantry and serve as a Colonel.  After the war, he was a member of the Ohio State Geological Corps.

Wednesday, July 20, 2011

Saturday July 20

The struggle at Manassas Junction has begun.  A severe fight at Bull Run.  Col. Norton of the ___________regiment O.V. M. was wounded in a fight on the Kanawha and fell into the enemy's hands, also four other officers who contrary to orders went unattended to see the fight and were captured.

Tuesday, July 19, 2011

Friday, July 19

Kate went up to the station with Lucy.  She saw a coffin enwrapped in an American Flag on the cars, and was told it contained the body of one killed lately in battle but  could not learn the name.  How many hearts must bleed because of the guilty ambition which has originated this shameful rebellion.  God pity the mourners.  Lucy speaks of one young fellow who was long sick in the hospital at Marietta and who was quite a favorite with his nurses, who on his convalescence went to join his regiment in Virginia and was killed the first night while on duty.

Monday, July 18, 2011

Thursday July 18

Kate went to see Maggie in the forenoon and I went up in the afternoon.  She does not regain her strength.  Lucy came home with Lizzie to spend the night.  Little Sarah seemed pleased to be at home again.  Eliza Carlin came to see Nancy.
It is said that Johnson retreats before Patterson.  I see it stated in the Gazette that Judge Jackson of Parkersburg, an officer in the rebel service was killed at Cheat River, another Jackson was severely wounded and two more made prisoners, all belonging to the same family.  A letter from William today.  He thinks Congress will not adjourn this week.  From his letter I infer that W. H. Seward, our Secretary of State is not much of a war man.  I am glad to find that William is making acquaintances.  He went to Washington not knowing more than half a dozen persons in the city.  
The papers talk of a a probable battle by Saturday, at or near Manassas Junction where the enemy are concentrated in force.  Mr. Andrews returned from Virginia.

Peggy's comments:
Amidst all the war news, Julia and the women of the family were also concerned about the health of Maggie Voris, Lizzie Voris Cutler's sister.

William Henry Seward won a seat in the New York State Senate in 1830, served as governor from 1838-1940, and US Senator from 1849-1861.  He was outspoken in his opposition to slavery, which probably prevented him from being the Republican nominee for President in 1860 (Republican politicians thought that he was too radical and that the swing states would not vote for him).  When Lincoln appointed Seward Secretary of State, Seward expected to have extensive influence in foreign affairs.  He was willing to wage war against European powers if they favored the South, but Lincoln opposed that so Seward worked to prevent European recognition of the Confederacy.    Julia's comment that Seward i"s not much of a war man," may refer to his early attempts to work out a compromise to keep the southern states in the Union.

The "probable battle" that Julia refers to was the Battle of Bull Run. the first major land battle of the Civil War which was fought on Sunday, July 21.

Sunday, July 17, 2011

Wednesday July 17

The Gazette of today says that the Grand Army of the United States, with Gen'l Scott and staff crossed the Potomac yesterday.  The inspiriting music, the waving of banners and movement of regiments presented a brilliant spectacle witnessed by thousands of interested spectators.  It is thought that this movement precedes some decided action by our troops.  In Congress Breckenridge, last year a candidate for the Presidency now openly advocates treason.  Vallanchingham of Ohio and Barnet of Kentucky are not better.  It is stated in the papers that thousands of Kentuckians notwithstanding the professed state neutrality are joining the southern army.  "Whom the Gods would destroy they first make mad" says the heathen proverb. It would seem as if the South was God forsaken and allowed to sow the wind that they may reap the whirlwind. 
Lizzie, Marion and little Sarah went to town on the evening train under Ephe's escort.  Mrs. W. D. Bailey called.  I wrote to Jane in Persia.

Peggy's comments:
John C. Breckinridge was Vice-President of the United States from 1857-1861 while Buchanan was President.   Breckinridge ran for President against Lincoln and when defeated, he was elected Senator from Kentucky by the Kentucky state legislature.  He served from March 4, 1861 until he was expelled from the Senate December 4, 1861, for supporting the South.

Jane Shedd, Julia's niece, was a missionary in Persia.  She and her husband and children lived there for many years.

Saturday, July 16, 2011

Tuesday, July 16

Today's Gazette gives details of an important victory obtained over the rebel forces by M'Clellan's forces under Gen. Morris at Carrick's Ford on Cheat River eight miles from St. George.  The rebels retreated from Laurel Hill first toward Beverly but finding M'Clellan there before them, they retraced their steps until they reached a turnpike leading to St. George.  They were pursued by Gen. Morris with the Ohio 14", the Cleveland Artillery, 7" and 9" Indiana regiments.  The rebels were commanded by Gen. Robert Selden Garnett once a West Point cadet and a United States officer.  Gen. Garnett was killed at Carricks Ford.  His army of 5000 Georgians, Carolinians,  and eastern Virginians, was completely routed, 25 known to be killed, many bodies carried off.  Forty loaded wagons, all their horses and camp equipage fell into our hands, and more prisoners than could be taken care of.  Our own entire loss was four, all belonging to the Ohio 14".  Two regimental banners were taken & several Virginia officers and four Georgia Captains and lieutenants.  It is thought that this defeat will dishearten Secessionists in Virginia.

Peggy's comments:
The battle at Corrick's Ford might seem like a skirmish in comparison to battles that were to follow.  I can't say whether the Secessionists were disheartened, but what did happen was that the Confederate army was driven from western Virginia and the Federals held that territory  and its east-west railroads for the duration of the war.  This early victory for McClellan contributed to the decision by Lincoln to name George McClellan commander of the Army of the Potomac.  It might be said that his victory at Corrick's Ford was the high point of McClellan's military career.

Friday, July 15, 2011

Monday, July 15

Five of the soldiers, three months men from Camp Dennison, were here to breakfast.  They are to take the place of the Eggleston Guards in guarding the railroad.  They are under Capt. Pierce.  The Fannie M'Burnee one day last week was boarded by Jenkins and 35 secessionists at Green Bottom and robbed of some revolvers, swords &c.  In the Kanawha Valley, secession carries a high hand.  Union men flee for life and with their families conceal themselves in the woods.  In two instances, it is said children have been born in caves.  The property of loyal citizens has been ruthlessly destroyed.

Peggy's notes:
When Abraham Lincoln's initial call for volunteers went out, some men enlisted in regiments for a period of 3 months time.  At the end of the three months, many regiments were reorganized and many men reinlisted for longer period, often three years.

The Fanny McBurney was a steamboat built in nearby Harmar, Ohio in 1860.  I can't find a picture of that particular boat, but it was undoubtedly similar to this one:

Thursday, July 14, 2011

Sabbath July 14

No minister today.  Elder Joel Deming conducted services.  A good congregation.  I suppose Mr. Andrews is today with M'Clellan near Laurel Hill.  Mr. Andrews started into Virginia last Monday.  He is ardently patriotic and desires earnestly to take part in the struggle or in some way be useful to his country.  It is said that McClellan will employ him either as Chaplain or as Topographical engineer.  I was pained that those who led in prayer today forgot to pray for their country.  Thousands of our country men have adventured their lives in the battle field.  Possibly our own Ohio boys may even today confront the canon's mouth.  Can we not even ask of Him who disposes all events that He will fight for those who fight for us and contend with them who contend against us.  Mrs. Burgess sent for Lizzie to come up and see Maggie.  She is not so well.  The Eggleston guards sent home plates with thanks.  They leave in the morning.

Wednesday, July 13, 2011

Saturday July 13

The girls returned from Marietta by morning train.  The parents of young Vornholt publish a card of thanks to the Eggleston Guards, who attended their son and to the McClures for their hospitality & kindness.
Lizzie and I went up to see Maggie who is still unable to sit up.  Lizzie sent a basket of blackberry pies and ginger cakes to the Eggleston Guards.  A victory of M'Clellan's forces under General Rosencrans at Rich Mountain near Laurel Hill is reported.  One hundred or more of the enemy killed and several hundred prisoners taken, the rest routed.  Col. Pegram, the rebel commander with 600 men surrendered.

Peggy's comments:
I am often amazed at the juxtaposition of family matters, concerns about friends, and war news in Julia's journal.  In looking at the original, I think that she sometimes wrote more than once during the day, recording what was on her mind at various times and catching up at the end of the day.

In this entry, the girls are Annie  Cutler, Lizzie's older daughter, and Kate Dawes, Julia's niece who lived with the Cutlers.

Maggie is Lizzie's sister who is apparently still sick.

Lizzie, like many women, was quite industrious baking for the troops.  Here's an envelope that was printed during the Civil War.

The news about the surrender of Col Pegram refers to Col. John Pegram who had been serving in the US Army but resigned in May of 1861.  He was 29 at the time of this battle.  Here's a summary of the battle by the National Park Service.

Tuesday, July 12, 2011

Friday July 12

This is brother William's birthday.  God grant him every needed blessing.  "Him that honoreth me will I honor", is the promise.  God keep him always, make him useful, give him friends, influence, success.  Kate and Annie went to Marietta, also Nancy.  A missent letter from William came today dated the 3".  He was at the National Hotel.

Editor's comments:
William P. Cutler was 49 on July 12, 1861.

William P. Cutler

Washington, DC  1861

Monday, July 11, 2011

Thursday July 11

Maggie is better.  Lizzie came home this morning.  She received the first letter from Washington today, dated July 5th.  William thinks Congress will have a "short working session".  He writes that the city is full of soldiers, streets, hotels, halls of Congress.  And every hill top on the Virginia side of the Potomac is white with tents.  He finds every man striving for himself and true patriotism at a discount.
Kate spent the afternoon with Maggie.  Mrs. John Newton is there spending the day.  Lizzie and I went to the Circle at Mrs. Joel Deming's, first calling on Mrs. Blackinton and Mrs. Charles Cone.  Mrs. Newton and the Burgess' called down in the evening to hear the news.  There has been severe fighting in Missouri between Col Sigel's regiment and a greatly superior rebel force.  Loss of rebels 200, ours eight killed, 45 wounded & missing, eighty five horses captured. Rebels retracting.  Also an engagement is reported between the scouts of Gen. McClellan and the enemy's pickets near Laurel Hill, Va., in which the northerners displayed admirable courage, driving the enemy into their own rifle pits "Into the pits they digged for us they have fallen themselves".  The Gazette says the funeral of young Vornholt was very numerously attended.  He was buried with military honors by the Storer Rifles and a detachment of the Eggleston Guards.

Sunday, July 10, 2011

Wednesday July 10

Maggie is sick with diphtheria.  Kate and Lizzie went up to see her.  Lizzie is going to spend the night with her.  The report with regard to Norton's regiment is contradicted today.

Editor's comments:
Maggie Voris was Lizzie's 25 year old sister who lived nearby with their mother.

Saturday, July 9, 2011

Tuesday July 9

A train passed down about three o'clock last night having on board a company of cavalry and their horses.  This train ran over one of the Eggleston Guards on a trestle below McClures cutting off his legs.  He was carried to Mr. M'Clures where he died early this morning.  He told his comrades to tell his father that he died for his country.  His father is a dry goods merchant in Cincinnati.  His body was sent home on today's train.  Dr. Frank Hart was sent for but he was dead before he arrived.  A dispatch was sent this morning to the young man's friends.  God pity and sustain them in this hour of affliction.  
Kate and Lizzie went down to Calder's store to make a few purchases.  While they were gone we had the heaviest rain that has fallen for weeks, but they were safely housed at Mrs. McClure's.
A battle is reported near Martensburg, Virginia between the forces under Gen'l Patterson and the rebels under Gen. Johnson.  Gen. Patterson has lately crossed the Potomac at the head of a division of 18,000 troops.  His progress is disputed by Johnson with an equal number of men.  It is said that the Government troops were victorious, killing one thousand of the enemy.  This number is greatly exaggerated probably. Col. Norton's regiment now at Ripley, Jackson Co. Va., is reported to be surrounded by the enemy.  Gen. Cox, with 4,000 men from Ohio, is on the way to relieve him.  Henry McClure is now at home on furlough.  McClellan was advancing on Beverly when he left the army.  The young man who was killed on the trestle was only eighteen years old.  His name was J. Frederick Vornholt.

Friday, July 8, 2011

Monday July 8

Eight years ago my dear Father left us for a better world.  Was he taken from the evil to come?  God save our country.  
The Eggleston Guards sent home the pie plates wrapped in a paper.  The regiments now at Parkersburg are the Ohio 13" and Indiana 17.  The Indiana 15" has gone on to join Gen. M.Clellan.

Parkersburg, Virginia

Thursday, July 7, 2011

Sabbath July 7

Train from Cincinnati did not get here till midnight so we did not get Saturday's Gazette last evening.  A little before twelve last night we heard the sound of chopping toward the hill.  It was a moonless night and we feared some one was tampering with the railroad so we aroused and sent forth John to reconnoiter.  He soon returned saying that the railroad was all right, but some fellows were chopping a tree on the hillside (a bee tree it afterwards proved) and he was disposed to watch them awhile.  While thus aroused we heard firing at Parkersburg between one and two o'clock.  First alarm guns, drums beating and then about twenty rounds of musketry.  We feared the camp had been surprised and a fight had taken place.  
Mr. Andrews preached from the text: 'Not this man but Barrabas'.  Pretty full congregation.  
John Roberts who went down to Parkersburg this morning reports that the firing was occasioned by a false alarm.

Wednesday, July 6, 2011

Sat. July 6

Annie and Sarah went and spent the day at their Grandmother's.  Ephe went to town to stay over Sabbath and George went home.  Lizzie sent cherry pies and cakes to the Eggleston Guards at "Camp Cole".

Editor's comments:
Annie and Sarah Cutler were the daughters of Lizzie & William Cutler.  Their grandmother, Mrs. Burgess, lived within walking distance.
The Burgess home

Tuesday, July 5, 2011

Friday July 5

Lucy went home this morning.  Sarah Emerson with her.  All day trains have been passing with troops, cannon, horses and equipage.  They are the Indiana 15" and 17 regiments.  We counted eighty-nine cars thus loaded.  When called to the battle field may they only be led forth to victory.

Editor's comments:
I'm quite sure that when Julia refers to "the cars" or the "RR" she's referring to rail road cars.  However, the usage of the word "trains" also referred to wagon trains.  I'm not sure if she means wagon trains or RR trains.

Monday, July 4, 2011

July 4, Thursday

Julia's nephew, Rufus R. Dawes
I thought today of the living and the dead absent from us.  Of Rufus, who is today twenty three years old.  He would have graduated at Marietta in the class of 1860, but his father took him to Wisconsin a few weeks before the close of his college course.  The faculty conferred his degree upon him at the last Commencement.  He is Captain of the Lemonweir Minute men.  He and his company have been received into the sixth Wisconsin Regiment under Col. Cutler.  Rufus has talent and principle.  He is not tall but firmly built and very athletic.  He has a very bright intelligent countenance and I think will be popular with his men.  He always makes warm friends.  May our father's God "bless the lad".

Julia's brother, William P. Cutler
I thought of my dear brother called to the exercise of a new class of duties, in unwonted circumstances, obliged to leave his family here on the border not without some anxiety as to what may befall us; and himself going to Washington, the direct route through Virginia impracticable.  Although Harpers Ferry has been evacuated by the rebels, the bridges have been destroyed on the Baltimore & Ohio R.R.   So he must needs go through Pennsylvania and Maryland to the Capitol near which 70,000 loyal troops are encamped.  There, among strangers, he begins his Congressional life.  May it be an honorable and useful one.  God shield and guide him.  

Henry Manasseh Dawes,
Julia's nephew who died in August 1860
at the age of 28

 My thoughts, too, have been today with the dear departed ones, Henry, bold, ardent, patriotic, what part would he have taken in these stirring times? 

Ephraim Cutler, Julia's father
And Father -- how would his heart have burned within him, indignant at southern treason, jubilant over northern loyalty and valor. 

How does the National holiday find us today!  Our land seems like one great encampment, the sound of war is everywhere.  In the Federal army and the Rebel there are half a million men under arms.  
I spent the morning making bouquets.  I had a large basket filled with them.  Lucy and Kate went early and when I arrived had the table all set.  Several ladies were busy carving chickens & ham, prepapring bread andd butter, cutting cheese, cakes and pies.  There was an abundance of good things and every thing seemed excellent of its kind.  Some of the State Fencibles, Scott Guard and Dayton Zouaves were there.  And the Eggleston Guards with their officers, Capt. & Lieut. Carter, &c.  The Zouaves and Eggleston Guards went through their drill for the benefit of the ladies.  After refreshements were served several short speeches were made by soldiers, Stewart of Fencibles, Bell of the Zouaves, Wright and Baird of the Eggleston guards.  Baskets of provisions were sent to those who were left on guard.  Several patriotic pieces were sung.  On the whole it was a very satisfactory picnic, about two hundred and twenty present.

Charlie Gates spent the night with us.

Sunday, July 3, 2011

July 3, Wednesday

Kate went up to A. S. Bailey's to arrange about the picnic.  Lizzie baked large pound, white, and cup cakes and a large quantity of ginger cakes for the picnic.  Lucy and Annie came down on the evening train.  Lucy brought a couple of nice cakes.  For several evenings a splendid comet has been visible.  It is between Ursa Major and the north star.

Saturday, July 2, 2011

Tuesday July 2

Sarah and Lucy who came down and spent the night went home on the train taking Annie with them.  Ephe took Kate in a carriage to invite the folks down the road to a picnic on the fourth.  We sent invitations in the name of A. S. Bailey and W. D. McClure as Committee to the Eggleston Guards, State Fencibles and Dayton Zouaves.  Maggie took tea here.  The papers have an account of a wonderful fight between a party of scouts sent out from Cumberland by Col. Wallace.  They consisted of thirteen mounted men, who went nearly to Frankfort town which they found full of cavalry.  They met and charged and routed a company of horsemen killing eight, and capturing seventeen horses.  Corp. Hayes was badly wounded and while attending to him, they were suddenly attacked by a party of seventy five horsemen.  Of these they killed twenty three.  They all succeeded in getting back to camp except one, J. F. Collingworth who was killed.  I think it will hardly do after this to doubt the bravery of Indianians.

Friday, July 1, 2011

Monday July 1, 1861

William left very early this morning on a chance train to Marietta.  He has started to Washington, will go by river to Wheeling, thence by railroad through Pittsburg, Harrisburg & Baltimore.  In the present state of the country it is trying to him and to us to be so far separated.  I think he felt sad but he was composed and selfsustained.  May the Lord be his keeper.  Four trains passed during the night with troops.  The Thirteenth regiment. It is cool for the season.  We have had very little rain.  The gardens and the potato crop are needing it badly.  The rain yesterday was too light to do much good.We are constantly hearing of skirmishes but do not always find the reports confirmed.  I find my record of passing events as I look it over is very meager.  There was however an attack a few nights ago made on the guard near the Tunnel on the M. and C. by a dozen miscreants who, it is supposed meant to rescue a prisoner that was under guard as a spy from Richmond.  About twenty shots were exchanged when the attacking party decamped.  Mr. Lutz dined with us.  He was a classmate of Ephe's.